Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
Social Science 202 1st team exam
Stops at Kennedy
Terms in this set (75)
Republican) First to go against isolationism formed an informal alliance with US and Britain (and kept peace); Was the first president (1901-1909) that wanted the United States to become more globally engaged and eventually be a world superpower. He was also the first president that wanted to veer away from the isolationist viewpoint that all of his predecessors prescribed. He did this by helping the people of Panama (and then later buying) with the construction of the Panama Canal. He also took America into a non-isolationist agenda by building up the U.S.'s military, especially in the creation of a huge Navy; sees war as a positive good; imperialist and saw the benefit of obtaining many colonies ; His three goals were: U.S. interests, strengthening of US Navy, close cooperation with Britain on a wide range of issues. Was a outdoorsmen and huge environmentalist. Helped issue the treaty of portsmouth ending the Russo-Japanese war of 1905.
Brought the world into WWI; He entered WWI to "make the world safe for democracy"; Unable to ratify the League of Nations through Congress (very embarrassing); people felt betrayed and thought Wilson intended to lead the US into the War despite his promises especially since they weren't kept
(Democrat) More of an internationalist, support for the League of Nations. Guided the U.S. from place of isolationism after World War I. Was many times deceitful to the American public. Was downplaying U.S. involvement in World War II. This deception and lying can be seen as good. The lying that FDR committed was strategically right for the country. An example is that sometimes you must lie to the public in order to confuse your enemy and keep the public calm.
Means settling international quarrels in an attempt to avoid war; was alternative to starting war with Hitler's Germany over the taking of the Sudetenland portion of Czechoslovakia. This leads to the Munich Agreement in September 1938 led by Neville Chamberlain (with Daladier, Hitler, and Mussolini) when London lets a piece of German speaking Czechoslovakia go to Germany. Hitler justifies this annexation by calling it "self determination". He wants to unite German speaking people; Germany is officially given Czechoslovakia and the Sudetenland; Hitler did not follow the Pact's term; all he cared about was cutting up world and expanding as much as possible; Appeasement ended when Germany attacks and successfully takes Poland and splits it with Stalin, this is when France and G.B. declare war on Nazis; Britain and France consequently declared war on Germany and this started WWII; for months after declaration of warà "Phony War/ Sitskrieg" because there was no actual fighting until spring of 1940; Following the break of appeasement, Germany decides to try to take as much land as possible
Cathal Nolan, "Bodyguard of Lies"
Nolan reviewed the presidency of FDR and made us consider if FDR was too deceitful, and we generally concluded that when the ends justify the means it was ok to lie; If FDR told US people what was really going on...there is a possibility that U.S. would have wanted to stay out of war, he had to convince the American public gradually; If the U.S. did not enter the war, it would have been the world against the United States with a Nazi possible takeover of Britain and their navy which would have left Britain bitter and in the dust and Japan may have taken over the Eastern world; Germany would be a superpower and would have eaten up India; so sure...Lies have short term benefits but long term consequences;FDR's WORST deceit was while he was campaigning in Boston and he said in order to get re-elected, "I won't bring your boys to war"...and sure enough he did; Cecilia Bok is the philosopher that Nolan analyzes She believes that in FDR's case, lying is wrong and unjustifiable; In a democracy, people are supposed to be sovereign and able to make their own decisions but if the leader not truthful...people can't make their OWN decision. made SU not seem so bad/ stalin so cre....longterm bad effects.
(1935-1937) It warned Americans on traveling on foreign ships of nations at war, prohibited the selling of goods to any nation at war, prohibition on loans with countries involved in a war; this is because of the Wilson's mistake that brought the US into WWI
from deese->1930s- Neutrality Acts 35-37 war in people's memory they don't want to repeat? WWI
trade with warring nations->no more. forbids all trade of any kind of munition down to bullets, irregardless if country started war and has been victimized by war.->first one
cash and carry- sale of anythingggg, unless they show up in their own ships and pay cash.
metaphor- loan your garden hose. ← Lend Lease metaphor.
US had been isolationist, does that mean it had never been outside powers? had they gone to war? 19thc 1800s- war of 1812 with Britain. 1898- war with spain. 1840s- war against mexico
manifestly unfair, but justified by manifest destiny- indian wars.
U.S. is on a continent where we are not forced to engage with any other major powers.
essay about FDR's dubious honesty-> what did he do that got us closer to war? destroyers for bases, was our naval friendship as simple as that? no. what were we doing that he wasn't saying?
escorting british ships in the north atlantic and would sometimes help them pursue germans
the Greer- nazis attacked us! but not actually out of the blue....torpedoed... "attack on site"
Teddy was an exception to the rule.
The policy that the United States should not get involved in wars and concerns of other countries. It should focus on progressing its own society. The idea was first developed in 1796 during George Washington's Farewell Speech. The speech said that the US should avoid "entangling alliances". From then on, US was focused on continental expansion ("manifest destiny"); This eventually leads to the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 (declared the US as independent; if Britain were to intervene, we would think of this as an act of aggression;that told Europe to keep out of its business. A way that the U.S. implemented a type of economic isolationism was in 1930 with President Hoover signing the Smoot Hawley Tariff Act, which put a tax on foreign manufactured and farm goods.
was a provision installed to keep US ships out of the war zone in Europe. If countries wanted to trade then they would have to use their own ships to trade or pick up the goods and pay in cash, no credit; this includes agricultural products and military as well
America would loan G.B. war material rather than money, and G.B. would return it after the war. FDR uses analogy "it's like lending neighbor a garden hose to put out a fire". The reason that the U.S. helped out G.B. was so they could get rid of the Nazis so the U.S. would not have to get involved. Was later defined as a policy that lets the US president lend military equipment to any country that the president sees viable to US defense. The Soviet Union later became a part of lend-lease when Hitler broke the Nazi- Soviet Pact and attacked the USSR.
ensures war; ships will be engaged with Germany; Roosevelt exchanges ships for bases with Britain; spin of truth in that they get the bases but the lie was that it was really because Roosevelt was partial to Britain
Battle of Britain-
the amphibious assault of Nazi Germany and the civilian cities of Great Britain especially that of London; summer/ autumn of 1940; objective of Nazi Germany was to prove they were better than the Royal Airforce
the beginning of the end of German's domination of Europe; Allied forces get their big guns and prove they are the badass good guys by invading Normandy (D-Day) with a huge aircraft assualt; its the famous invasion where we invade from the "underbelly of Europe"
um can we talk about how this is called the "Naughty Document"? TROLOLOOLOLOL; secret meeting b/w Churchill and Stalin and how they would divide South Eastern Europe; they literally just took countries and were like aight 50/50
capital of Russia; 1940s soviets view WWII- we lost 400,000 in second WW they took like 20 million Russians; molotov's proclaims that this was a great patriotic war for Russia,their make or break as a nation, if they lost they would have never been successful?; able to push germans far west of berlin and later gained control of eastern europe for a half a century.
(1940) alliance comprised of Nazi Germany, Italy, and Japan. The result of this is that US embargoes steel to Japan. The pact specifically says that if one of these nations goes to war with another modern industrial nation, that all of them will wage war against that country, a.k.a the US.
alliance comprised of U.S.A., G.B., and USSR. Is not the perfect alliance cause there are many disagreements between all three leaders (Churchill, FDR, Stalin). Have secret deals behind each others backs. i.e. -Churchill and FDR keep atomic bomb secret from Stalin.
Prime Minister of Great Britain during World War II. Was a major critic of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Hitler. Also said the iron curtain speech.
the invasion of North Africa that was the U.S.'s first involvement in World War II. When U.S. went to Africa to kick out the 3rd Reich (Nazis), the Third Reich controls Europe effectively; Grand Alliance (mostly Russia) wanted to enter Europe and open up the Western Front to destroy the Nazis; On the other hand, Churchill is very cautious on opening this up
Was an attack devised by Churchill and FDR, did not include Stalin's Soviet Union. Was the start of the Second Front in war. Attack was comprised of an amphibious attack by US and G.B. The attack was a success because it pushed the Nazis out of Africa and back into Europe. By 1943 it was considered a success; Meet at "Casablanca Conference" and the Allies stressed unconditional surrender (just want to make sure the Third Reich is shut down for good)
o *Need to make sure Stalin doesn't make a deal with Hitler
Spheres of influence agreement-
Agreement b/w Churchill and Stalin. Churchill is concerned about 95% influence in Greece. (focal point of Truman Doctrine) Greece is important because Churchill wants to keep influence in Greece because it is part of the Mediterranean. America also wants to keep Stalin away from Greece to protect their interests and does not want Stalin to be in Greece pretty much at all, they just want a fair deal in regards to Poland. Stalin only wants Eastern Europe so he is fine without Greece, also doesn't really like the leaders of the Communist party in Greece.
Churchill wants a fair deal with Poland in accordance with Stalin and realizes the influence Stalin has with his enormous Red Army which is the most powerful army in Europe too...yikes! Goes against the US and British policy of letting Greece have their own agreement
UN concept at heart. hard-nose- these are the borders and if someone breaks this agreement then we will stop invasions with force. "police the world" -doesn't always work, some of the larger counties ignore it. ex. 1. Korean War 2. Gulf War 3. Nato & Utoyan
One example pre-UN:
o Under FDR when Italy invade Ethiopia (October 1935)
§ Ethiopian leader, Selassie pleads to League of Nations for collective security
§ LON ignores his plead & Mussolini succeeds & conquers Ethiopia
o At this point US is still battling isolationism, UN was not yet created
· Collective Security was the main goal of UN
· Collective Securityà if one UN country decides to take invasion on another country then those countries attached in borders will counter the invasion
o Doesn't always work, sometimes large countries ignore the agreement
1939, officially October 24, 1945-upon ratification of the Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council—France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States -and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. main goal was collective security (sabrina)
Effective Secretary of State, trusted diplomat in an unofficial sense. FDR kept the state department in the dark and used Harry Hopkins
Feb 1945- Sets up Cold War. Stalin, FDR, and Churchill meet for the last time (FDR is very worn out at this point). Stalin bullies for what he wants. Eastern Europe is "sold down the river" to Stalin, official endorsement. All agree that there will be self-determination...at least on Paper; Stalin wants Poland to become communist even though he said he would allow democratic govs. -people criticize FDR @ Yalta for trusting Stalin too much. -white-washing of Poland is happening. Manhattan project. Western side- FDR and Churchill, Soviet side- Stalin. They all agree that they hate Hitler; basically this is not honored at all...which is super awk because then everyone gets all commie
Final meet up of Stalin, Churchill, FDR in Black Sea (Mediterranean)
o FDR is very worn out and dies shortly after this conference
· At the time of Yalta, Germany was close to defeat. Britain and US troops were advancing from the west and Red Army from East.
· At conference it was agreed to divide Germany up amongst the Allies
o Everyone knows that Germany/Hitler is about to fail!
· *United Nations is established! (based on the principles of the Atlantic Charter)
· Yalta sets up the beginning of the Cold War (eastern Europe is basically sold to Stalin)
· Stalin gets an official endorsement in Europe from Yalta
o With this Stalin promises to set up different governments in Eastern Europe
o Stalin makes promises that there is no way on checking on him
§ Ex. Polandà Stalin "agrees" to set up a democratic government
o America angry at FDR for trusting Stalin too much
· ALTHOUGH, secretly FDR has the Manhattan project underway J
The Franck Report (1945)- Sabrina
· Written by nuclear physicists warning Truman not to use the bombà pre-Hiroshima and Nagasaki
· Thought we will never have the bomb to ourselves (we should put the bomb under international control)
o Wants to keep the atomic bomb in the background
· This was the US, British and Soviet agreements in February of 1945
· Under the agreed plan, the forces of the Three Powers will each occupy a separate zone of Germany
· Germany has to make compensation for the damage of WWII (reparation by Germany)
· This is a principle of the Atlantic Charter:
o "The right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live—the restoration of sovereign rights, and self government to those people who have been forcibly deprived of them by aggressor nations"
· Polandà Big issue...they forced that the provisional government should be reorganized to be democratic
o In these elections all democratic and anti-Nazi parties shall have the right to take part and to put forward candidates
· Surrender Terms for Germany:
o "The United Kingdom, the USA and the SU shall possess supreme authority with respect to Germany"
Summer of 1945; Truman finds out that the A-bomb works while at Potsdam; hints at the atomic bomb- tell Japan to surrender or utter destruction. Germany is already defeated and Truman is President at this point. finds out during the conference that the a-bomb is successful; does not want to degrade the people of Japan while in Peace so the occupation will not be terrible but still Japan doesn't listen and then we drop the bombs; gives Truman a lot of confidence while dealing with Stalin at this conference
Truman is now president & at this point, Germany is al ready defeated!
· During this conference, Truman gets notified that the A-Bomb has successfully been tested (has exploded according to plan)
o Truman becomes "cocky/arrogant"
· At conference he tells Japan, "If you do not surrender, you will be subject to prompt and utter destruction"
o "If you fail to surrender, then face other discretion"
Stalin's "Election Speech"-
The Soviet Union doesn't have elections. They reinforce what the party's goals are and try to bring nationalism. Because there is only one party and only one person running, he informs the citizens about party positions and identifies the candidate worthy of trust and responsibility. Contains hints as to the future actions of the Soviet Government. Feb. 1946 he reasserted the validity of Marxist Leninist thought and blamed WWII on the development of world capitalism and painted the contrast between capitalism and communism. This hasn't been reiterated a lot until now. It was supposed to rally soviet peoples in continuing sacrifices to their war torn country. Speech was viewed by many Westerners as a declaration of the cold war against the capitalistic world.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Truman himself never had doubts about using it. "the buck stops here" 1945, after Potsdam. When Japan refuses to back down, Allies (U.S.) drop atomic bombs in in two civilian filled cities. There are debates as to whether this was necessary, Russia was about to come in and the bombs might not have been needed. U.S. wanted to show SU their strength, but Stalin would never have been interested in atomic weapons until he saw what they could do...yikes. devastating effects. ultimately leads to Cold war/ Arms Race. Fear of WWIII, no one wants to start it obviously.
top diplomat in 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Germans invade in June 1941. Molotov improvises anti-tank weapon for Russian people aka Molotov cocktail (bottle with rags and propane, light on fire and boomm) go to guy in the early stages akin to Harry Hopkins. He hates the Marshall Plan
· Stalin's main diplomat on foreign affairs; go to guy in early stages of Cold War
· Molotov is main guy in the Nazi-Soviet Pact when they decide Poland will "disappear" off the map
o The two countries also promise never to go to war with each other
§ Realization that appeasement doesn't work
§ Hitler and Stalin never actually met each other
· * George Orwell was the 1st to use the word "Cold War"
right after WWII and atomic bomb. suggested international regulation of atomic energy. would be put under international control by UN. means sharing with Stalin-luckily-it doesn't fly. more of a gesture, and Stalin isn't interested anyways (wants to make his own)
Kennan's "Long Telegram"
In the telegram it says the SU will always be pushing for expansion and so we need to push them back and CONTAIN them.
Iron Curtain Speech-
Churchill, gave it in America. He was then a very respected wartime leader and known for issuing warnings. Credibility lies in that he was one of the Victors and knew appeasement with Hitler would not work. However, UK voters are no longer interested in a conservative Tory at the end of WWII so he is no longer Prime Minister. They wanted a Welfare State. Speech talked about the Iron Curtain of communism that separated from the Baltic to the Adriatic, eastern Europe from the west. There is no free and open frontier in his mind. ex. east Berlin fleeing to west leads to Berlin wall in 61, not to keep people out but to keep its own people in. The term Iron Curtain became used throughout the cold war. His speech warns about the Soviet Union and expansionism /our containment.
Iran and Turkey Crises 1946
the Soviets wouldn't leave northern Iran (SU not ready but they do leave eventually) -SU wants a warm water port so tell Turkey they want joint control of the Dardanelles. U.S. and Turkey HATE this idea. expansionism evidence, U.S. pushes back. Stalin is cautious and doesn't react. Truman writes the Truman doctrine because of these crises.
· The Iran Crisis is when SU has troops in Iran and they are very slow in taking them out and finally the SU takes them out (trying to end WWII)
· This crisis & Greece leads to the creation of the "Truman Doctrine"
· Soviets have troops in northern Iran and they want the "Dardanelles" in Turkey
o Soviets want a warm water port to trade with & the Dardanelles is a narrow waterway between Black Sea and Mediterranean
· The US successfully claims Dardanelles (Stalin looses this one)
o Stalin was cautious and so he let the Dardanelles go
1947 "It is the policy of the United States to support Free Peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." This was Truman's address that requested aid for Greece. This was given on March 12, 1947. This commits the U.S. to intervene all over the world to make sure that communism doesn't spread.
· Emerges as an Anti-Soviet Union Policy
· Truman writes this with the main goalà Financial aid to Greece (containment is al ready underway)
o We also don't want Turkey to fall to communism (Turkey has been a long lasting allied to the US)
· The crisis is the threatened fall of Greece (if this happens Stalin will take over Greece and completely claim Greece as a communist country)
· Britain tries to do everything to protect Greece but they can't do it alone so they come to US/Truman for help
o We agree to help fight off guerilla warfare in Greece
· Truman commits US to interventions all over the world to stop the spread of communism
· Kennan's writings influenced the Truman Doctrine
· Truman signs a National Security Act establishing the Department of Defense and later goes on to create the CIA and the secret budget??
This is a concept related to George F. Kennan. The tendency combined with communism indicated that in the post-war world, the Soviet Union would be expansive, but the U.S. would push back with containment and the Soviet Union would always back down. They wanted to keep Communism contained in the Soviet Union and keep it from spreading anywhere else.
the dude from Yugoslavia (communist, but still a pain in Stalin's ass)← HELP!? I have no notes on this dude. fought the fascists when they were in Yugo, decided to become independent communists. got more in common with Stalin than not in common BUT he doesn't want stalin/moscow to tell him what to do. Stalin can't stand it. Titoism- when people are independently communist. Tito is really supporting communists in Greece. Policy makers don't factor in Tito's role. Americans lump in communists with Stalin. (Thank you to whoever helped me out!)
Large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to combat the spread of Soviet communism. The goals of the United States were to rebuild a war-devastated region, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, and make Europe prosperous again; ERP (european recovery program); Kennan helps draft it and he thought it was a great idea; "poison-pill" you had to show the economic plan to the U.S. and open your books which is why the eastern european and Soviet Unions are dominated by communist govs; Molotov thinks its a terrible thing and that its an "imperialistic" view so that we get other countries on our side
Document published in a foreign affairs magazine: "Sources of Soviet Conduct." It says that all throughout Russian History that it has been Russian nature to be expansive out of fear. That tendency combined with communism indicated that in the post war world the Soviet Union would be expansive and the U.S. should push back with containment. Kennan was disappointed in how containment was used and felt it was too militaristic. He was interested in political and economic help rather than commitment to wars. He was more interested in Marshall Plan. Kennan was a soft realist, skeptical of getting a good outcome when using force. Wanted to strengthen economic and political health of countries bordering the Soviet Union
March 1946 & came out by Soviet Union, Russian national security is not good and that's why some leaders (KREMLIN) acted as they did in history, Soviet leaders think that the ends justify the means ← context? parallels long telegram. - long telegrams; Long telegram from British perspectives, same idea of why SOviet union is hostile to the west part commie part historic russian security; the same as the Long telegram
1949; North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It was originally started as the Brussels pact; Europe scared of Soviet Union, so then the United States became apart of it. It was formed to make sure that the Soviet Union didn't go batshit crazy all over everyone with their Communism bullshit. This was important because this is the first actual "pact"/organization that the United States would enter, and still be apart of. Taft thinks that NATO is not a good idea because anything that is made to be defensive can easily become militarily offensive. Eisenhower thinks that NATO is the best thing since sliced bread. Heavily relied on United States' defense that other countries relied on because of their Nuclear power.
The U.S. planes drop supplies in June of 1948. This is because Stalin decided to starve West Berlin and cut off all ground traffic going into West Berlin. This was a good PR victory for the West, great spirit of the Marshall plan
· It is here that Stalin announces that the SU is atomic capable
· East Berlin became isolated by Stalin and West Berlin was owned by the Allies
· To get control of ALL Berlin, Stalin puts a land blockade to Berlin
· People wanted Truman to call war against SU but he refrained so instead Truman set up an air lift every 90 seconds supplying West Berlin with essential goods
o After about one year, Stalin lifts the blockade and back to "normal"
Right After Berlin Airlift Termination (1949)
· In August, US detects radiation from the SU and Truman realizes at this point that they have successfully dropped their first atomic bomb
· China goes communist shortly after
o CCP victory in China
· The termination of the atomic bomb and communism infiltrating China begins what is called "Red Scare"
o Everyone is so scared that the world can come to an end now!
Didn't think that NATO was a good idea. He was worried about Article 5 that states that an attack on one of us is an attack on all of us. He thought that this could lead to another World War. We are giving power to an alliance that really belongs with congress. He thought that anything that was defensive can easily become militarily offensive. isolationist
· In 1952, Taft was a serious contender for the presidential election
· He is a major republican
· Strongly against NATO because he thinks its polarizing the world and is breaking the world in half
· Does NOT like defensive acts (Maginot line, no like demilitarizing)
· No like NATO because he feels it takes away congress power to declare war
· Taft made his disapproval of NATO clear, and American people supported NATO so...Taft did not win the presidential election (Ike did)
United States Secretary of State for Truman. He helped design the Marshall Plan and played a huge role in the development of the Truman Doctrine. He was the one who convinced Truman to intervene in the Korean War. He thought that the best way to prevent future European conflict was to restore economic prosperity to Western Europe.
White Paper on China
Why Mao succeeds and why Jiang fails? Mao had a relationship with the common people and Jiang had an elitist government. Mao helped fight the Japanese WAY more than Jiang. Jiang was too crAY about communism and wasted funds while not doing ****.Acheson wrote this to explain why korea was not u.s. fault but Jiang's
On Asia in 1949 Dean Acheson published this paper
· Dean says that China went communist because Stalin's help towards Mao was really weak
· Dean thinks that Chiang Kiashek is so corrupt and incompetent & so the fall of the regime was Chiang's fault but NOT the peasants fault
· China went communist because of inside spy workings
Acheson includes Japan because this is important for holding back communism. Acheson does not include South Korea. This has an effect on Stalin's thinking about communism for Korea. Leader of Korea wants Stalin to back him and Stalin does. During the summer of 1950 there is a surprise attack on South Korea and U.S. is shocked. UN authorizes U.S. to push North Korea out of there at the 38th parallel.
· Dean Acheson gave this and it defines our defensive perimeter along most of the Asian countries such as Taiwan and Japan
· Acheson failed to mention anything about the mainland (doesn't include South Korea)
o With this exclusion, SU sees no problem in trying to claim S.Korea
o This is a "green light for Stalin"
· MacArthur says, "never get in a land war with Asia"
General MacArthur very successful in Asia...Effort to Roll Back Communism successful especially in the first part of the Korean War; Then his true cray colors showed when MacArthur wanted to restore Chiang Kai-shek to power and proclaimed it without the approval of Truman and MacArthur started to go to the N. Korean border between China and Korea...he "publicly raged that the US should carry the war into China and bomb beyond the Yalu" and use the atomic bomb; massive invasion by Chinese surprised MacArthur's troops; Huge monetary cost for this...Containment was not enough for MacArthur cause he's an *******; Truman refused MacArthur's demand; Truman publicly fired MacArthur and accepted a limited war; Public was furious at MacArthur...he was a hero in their eyes;Many people wanted to impeach him; Truman opted in the end for containment
1st proxy war of the Cold War; very rough war for America
· This is known as the "Forgotten War"
written by Paul Nitze; Was brought to Truman's attention and but wasn't considered to be relevant until after the Korean war brought document to NSC 68- document that called for creation of national security state by vastly increasing America's military. Core of Truman's containment policy.
The Korean Peninsula is divided at the 38th parallel before WWI; After the Japanese surrendered, the divide remained as a boundary for the new independent countries of North and South Korea; Soviet Union and China backed Northern Korea with dictator Kim Il Song and US backed dictator Snygman Rhee; in 1950, the North Koreans crossed the parallel in an attempt to gain control of the peninsula and the invasion was backed by China and the Soviet Union; the US army successfully pushed back the N. Korean army to the Chinese-Korean border (against Truman's orders...that sneaky MacArthur!) and the Chinese successfully retaliates back to the 38th parallel and then...there's a stalemate...which continues even now; cost the lives of 30,000 Americans and the support of allies of Great Britain, India and other nations once the US moved beyond the 38th parallel
By MacArthur, place where Americans landed, right below the 38th parallel, and surrounded the North Koreans and was a very sneaky landing that caught the North Koreans surprised. It could have ended the war but Truman did not end the war there.
Chinese and Russia had very strained relations during the Cold War as we learned from first semester; the United States made the mistake of categorizing all communism as the same, Dulles was a big advocate of this
*******!!!!!!Do not use anti-communism interchangeably with McCarthyism; Played on Fear Made Stuff up for political opportunity since election was coming up; Used New Medium of TV and impressed a lot of people, Was in the Senate; His end also came in US; CBS Edward AlMurrow was the Journalist and went after McCarthy, people doubt McCarthy's legitimacy; Lawyer in Boston Cross-examined, after he tried to accuse Military and he loses his credibility; everything foreign was under suspect which was an after effects of McCarthyism; Feb 1950 McCarthy sent a Telegram to White House, Truman's (probably unsent) response showed disapproval of McCarthy's action because he was the First to discredit Senate; basically shut him down; said he was not fit to be in government of United States and had little sense of responsibility. Spread slander, attacked Dean Acheson and Marshall of being communist supporters.
John Foster Dulles
Republican Expert on Foreign Affairs served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. Eisenhower and John Foster introduce the "new look" - through nuclear weapons - i.e. tell Soviet Union that if they go into Asia or cross the line of the borders, we'll nuclear bomb soviet union! The notion is not to use them, but to threaten the soviets from acting. John Foster's strategy = we must be determined, and not back down, have to go to the "brink of nuclear war"; Put pressure on China in hopes that it would call upon Russia for help to cause stress on their alliance; very anti-Communist. Organized the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) for further protection against Communist expansion, and it allied the United States, Great Britain, France, Australia, and New Zealand with the non-Communist Asian nations of Thailand, the Philippines, and Pakistan.
"More Bang for Buck;"The name given to the national security policy of the US during the administration of President Eisenhower. It reflected Eisenhower's concern for balancing the Cold War military commitments of the United States with the nation's financial resources and emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear weapons to deter potential threat - both conventional and nuclear, from Eastern bloc nations led by the Soviet Union. Wanted to reduce defense spending but become a more credible opponent to USSR; Interested in deterrence not war; defense policies saved money; included massive retaliation, foreign alliances, and political pressure to maintain commitments abroad while reducing defense expenditures on conventional land forces ; also placed emphasis on covert activities to deal with low-level threats to American interests.
MASSIVE ATTACK THINK NICKI This is part of the New Look's plan - use of nuclear weapons to threaten the Soviet Union from aggression of any Asian nation; the notion is not to use the nuclear weapons but to threaten the soviets from acting. John Foster indicated that the US has to be determined, not to back down, have to go to the "brink of nuclear war."This would basically mean that the US if they act all big shot, will get what they want in the end. In result of this, continental air defense was expanded and it became the centerpiece of US security thinking, embodied in this doctrine of massive retaliation...Eisenhower thought that the west was too weak to defend against a Soviet attack but it was too expensive to have more American troops go over to Europe which is why it made sense to use nuclear power that was already in our possession to instantly prevent a Soviet invasion of Europe or to combat Communist aggression elsewhere
This term was used to refer to the constant competition between the US and Soviet Union during the cold war; it was coined by Secretary of State - John Foster Dulles. The term came from the political strategy of pushing the military to the brink of war in order to convince another nation to follow your demands. John Foster defined his policy of brinkmanship, as "the ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art." During the cold war, this was used as a policy by the US to coerce the Soviet Union into backing down militarily
Quemoy and Matsu
n October, 1960 - the destiny of these Chinese islands was hotly discussed during the Kennedy-Nixon presidential debates.
Quemoy and Matsu islands are over a hundred miles from Taiwan. When Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalist army was defeated on the mainland by the Communists in 1949, he and about 600,000 of his troops fled to Taiwan, to where the government of the Republic of China was transferred. During that retreat, the Nationalists fortified Quemoy and Matsu. In October 1949, the Nationalists repelled a serious invasion attempt by the Communists to seize Quemoy.
Although shore batteries shelled both islands relentlessly during the 1950's and '60's, the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) has not mounted another invasion effort against either island. If the PRC were to seize the islands or the Nationalists were to abandon them, the distance between the mainland and Taiwan would lengthen from a few miles to over a hundred, and "perhaps in thought as well." Moreover, the acquisition of these offshore islands by the PRC and their separation from Nationalist control would tend to validate acceptance of the "two Chinas" policy to which both Mao Tse-tung and Chiang Kai-shek were vehemently opposed.
the opposite of NATO and response to the formation of NATO, which was a western alliance formed in 1949, counter to Soviet Union. This drives Soviet Union to form counter alliance in 1955 = b/c West Germany joins NATO (idea was that after WWII Germany supposed to be de-militarized etc.) and this scares the Soviet Union. Many eastern countries = part of it. NATO = alliance that countries can join / leave voluntarily, but w/ Warsaw pact, countries = forced into it - mostly was east-European countries that Soviet dominated i.e. it wasn't by choice, and died in 1991, w/ the Soviet Union.
1954 -Summit in Geneva w/ US and Soviet Union, big issues they try to tackle = south east Asia and what happens w/ Vietnam and then they have Geneva accords that say that South Vietnam should be separated by 17th parallel
-Vietnam was French colony, and French fought to keep it - now French = gone, communists have North Vietnam, and non-communists have South Vietnam. Idea = not to have a war but elections and whomever wins runs Vietnam. Hope = for Ho Ch Min to win (but we dont want this...communists hope this.), and although there's accords about Vietnam, South Vietnamese and US never follow them.
NOTE: Hungary uprising is happening same time as this - Gamal Abdel Nasser wants French out of Algeria, and British out of middle east; Summer of 1956 - Nasser takes over Suez canal, British doesn't say anything at first, but then Britain makes a plan w/ Israel and France to get rid of Nasser and take over Suez canal Plan: Israelis attack Egypt and push them back (starts October) and then they're fighting on the canal; British and France then come to help war and take canal. They want to take canal, find Nasser and kill him
Khrushchev = done w/ Hungary and wants to help Egyptians and Nasser, so he threatens Britain and France to use nuclear weapons on them if they don't back off.
Eisenhower = angry about war w/ Egypt, thinks Suez Canal should be for Egypt, it's on their land! His allies (Britain and France) look like the Soviet Union. He calls the British and says if you don't leave Suez canal right now, I'm going to call every debt you owe us and kill your economy; so British has no choice but to back off and France and Israel follow
Khrushchev now has connections w/ middle east, they're on good terms
military strong man. he is not firmly in soviet camp but will accept aid. U.S. schmeh?
shade egypt as closer to SU than west. that changes with nixon and kissinger where Sadat (nasser's successor) at first is SU side, wants sinai peninsula, fails. diplomacy, shifts to american side. gradual shift. isn't complete until Carter is president. Egypt becomes a major beneficiary. killed in 81 but policy of peace w/ israel is carried on. new gov is a lot dodgeyer of a peace.
1956 After Khrushchev's de-stalinzaiton speech and Suez Crisis, by late October 1956 - Hungary wants to get rid of communism and the iron curtain and turn to west, Khrushchev sends tanks and crushes the rebellion; but main question = what about rolling back communism?! (It didn't really happy, just talk; bigger stuff to worry about now); disproves Massive Retaliation/ New Look
After Kennedy wins the election in1960, he gets rid of the Eisenhower administration and imposes a new plan of flexible response. He states that we'll have series of gradual steps putting pressure on the Soviet Union, b/c we want flexibility on how we respond the Soviet Union, we want options - not all or nothing! This becomes the new doctrine of US.
· This means to act relative to the situation at hand
· Flexible response replaces "massive retaliation"
· JFk was totally against having a nuclear war
· JFK increased the budget for the military
o He creates the "Green Burets"
· Opposite of Ike
o JFK thought that increase in budget for military and decrease in build up of arms/nuclear weapons
· "Will respond to urgency with our own special forces"
o This is one of the triggers that led to the Vietnam War
Bay of Pigs (April 1961):
CIA, under Eisenhower, was planning an invasion of Cuba and Fidel Castro by a 14,000-man army of Cuban exiles based in Florida & then this plan was left for Kennedy when he began his presidency.
*They thought when armed forces went in, enough people won't like Castro and help overthrow him, it worked in Guatemala! But not Cuba, Cubans actually like Castro!
Initial plan: Cuban exiles would establish a beachhead on Cuban soil, create a provisional gov., and then have that "gov" request a US peace-making force in expectation that many Cubans would rally to the cause of the rebels - worst case: rebels would slip into mountains and do guerilla warfare on model of Castro himself.
Kennedy = reluctant to accept plan, but couldn't back down completely so he just toned it down: less aircraft would be used, & aircraft would be disguised as Cuban aircraft and landing area = moved away from city (Trinidad) but in beach of Bay of Pigs (remote / isolated area) & people
It was a total disaster! & it looked bad for Kennedy
It's important b/c it leads to Cuban missile crisis.
Kennedy blamed it on Cuban exiles but everybody knew it was Americans who planned to attack Cuba. Khrushchev thought Kennedy was weak because of his terrible planning involving the Bay of Pigs.
Cuban Missile Crisis:
Khrushchev = intimidated that US has bombs and they don't, so solve all his problems - he wants to move missiles to Cuba, which can reach every where except Seattle - he does this secretly, which indicates to people that they may want to attack on US. Bad! Cuba likes the idea b/c they want missiles for protection, they're mad US came in (during bay of pigs).
CIA find out about this, by using U-2 to spy on Cuba, and see that they have missiles. Following the flexible response doctrine, they make a quarantine (Oct. 27, 1962)- stop allowing anything to go in / out on Cuba.
Khrushchev comes to quarantine line w/ ships and negotiates w/ Kennedy - Khrushchev agrees to take out missiles, and US will take out nuclear weapons from Turkey, but threatens that they'll put them back in if anything happens.
Khrushchev has embarrassed himself, again, and this is the beginning of the end for him
*Cubans and Soviet go together to have missiles, Cuba becomes satellite for Soviet Union, and then Kennedy sees missiles (it was secret), and Kennedy says this is unacceptable
b/c Berlin is a free city, and a lot of people (millions) are escaping from East Berlin (Soviet) to West Berlin (US / Britain / France) - Aug. 13, 1961 Khrushchev orders Berlin wall to be made, so no more people can escape. Initially, this wall also prevents westerns as well, but that's not allowed - British and American forces have to be able to be move around all of Berlin, not the Germans, but the west does. So British and US send tanks to the wall as it's being built. Khrushchev allows British and US to go through freely now, but it's still embarrassing for Khrushchev, shows that the only way he can keep his people in is by a wall! Communism looks weak now too.
Formosa (Taiwan) Resolution:
•. A bill enacted by the US congress on Jan. 29, 1955 establishing an American commitment to defend Formosa (Taiwan), and therefore also Nationalist China (Guomingdong) from Communist China. The legislation provided the President with the power to intervene if the island was attacked. The legislation was prompted, in part, by attacks on the islands of Kinmen and Matsu in the Taiwan Straits by the People's Liberation Army (communist army) in 1954. Chinese nationalists' had held both islands gov. led by Kai-shek, at the time, also controlled the island of Taiwan.
•. Following the actions of the Formosa Resolution, nationalist China and the US successfully negotiated an agreement to stop the bombing of the islands in the Taiwan Straits. This peaceful result ended the First Taiwan Strait Crisis. The resolution expires when the president decides that the UN is the best means to protect the US and thus will follow it's protocol / rules.
- First time given the authority to Eisenhower by Americans to defend
Surveillance planes that spied on Soviets. With high resolution spy cameras, saw nuclear bombs that Soviet was hiding
U-2 was collecting intelligence, and in may 1960, the U-2 plane was shot down by the Soviets.piloted by Francis Gary Powers) 1960
•. Francis Gary Powers = identified by Soviet and gets shot down; Eisenhower tries to cover it up but it fails
•. Khrushchev demanded an apology, but Eisenhower says no
•. Paris Summit, May 1960 - Eisenhower and Khrushchev go w/ this tension and Khrushchev says to Eisenhower if he doesn't apologize, he'll get out and he does, so conference = fail
•. *Less scary than Cuban missile crisis, but still a big deal! It makes tension between Soviet and US.
•. Kennedy- says US doesn't have missiles, so there's a missile gap (i.e. Soviet has a lot more missiles and power); Kennedy says Cuba = so close, and you've allowed communists to stay there, must get rid of him!
•. Nixon could respond, but everything he knows is secret, there is a missile gap, but US has more weapons than Soviet, by a lot! And they have a plan to get rid of communists in Cuba, but again, can't say anything - Nixon has his hands tied, and can't say anything, otherwise plan won't work
•. Kennedy wins election and gets rid of Eisenhower administration
John F. Kennedy
Liked neutral states, and used grant aid programs and the peace corp to help develop third world countries. Tried to win friends and alliances for the United States. He also increased the budget of the military. Kennedy only served the presidency for three years.
Got off to a bad start in Foreign policy regards to the Bay of Pigs crisis.
Passage thats cut Turkey into separate pieces
A great patriot, helped design the Marshall Plan and played a central role in the Truman Doctrine. Convinced Truman to intervene US in the Korean War, said it was necessary.
Plans were in Yalta. Started in San Francisco, in 1945. Security council of five permanent members who all had to vote on something for it to be passed.
a joint declaration on the purposes of the war to defeat fascism, Roosevelt and churchill agreed that the United States should finally begin convoying British ships as far as Iceland
Recommended textbook explanations
Modern World History Patterns of Interaction
Dahia Ibo Shabaka, Larry S. Krieger, Linda Black, Phillip C. Naylor, Roger B. Beck
Impact California Social Studies World History, Culture, & Geography The Modern World
Jackson J. Spielvogel
Florida World History
Anthony Esler, Elisabeth Gaynor Ellis
Sets found in the same folder
PS 251 Exam 3
Psych Exam 2
Unit 1 - SS 202 FINAL
Sets with similar terms
US History - Chapter 25
US History - Chapter 25
US history: chapter 22
Unit 3, Lesson 1
Other sets by this creator
Law Trials and Acts
Real Estate Terms