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31 terms

Chapter 17: Classification of Organisms

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Biodiversity
Variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems.
Taxonomy
The science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms.
Taxon
Particular group within a taxonomic system.
Kingdom
Linnaeus's largest category of nested hierachy.
Domain
Categories above the kingdom level.
Phylum
Subsets below the kingdom level.
Division
Traditional taxonomic system for plants, the category contained within a kingdom and containing classes.
Class
Each phylum consists of this.
Order
Each class contains this.
Family
Smaller grouping.
Genus
Smaller grouping.
Species
Smallest grouping, which contains only a single kind of organism.
Binomial nomenclature
Two part name system.
Subspecies
Variations of a species that live in different geographic areas.
Systematics
The goal is to classify organisms in terms of their natural relationships.
Phylogenetics
The analysis of the evolutionary or ancestral relationships among taxa.
Phylogenetic diagram
Systematists often represent their hypothesis in the form of this.
Cladistics
System of phylogenetic analysis that uses shared and derived characters as the only criteria for grouping taxa.
Shared character
Feature that all members of a group have in common.
Derived character
Feature that evolved only within the group under consideration.
Clade
Group of organisms that includes an ancestor plus all of its descendants.
Cladogram
Cladists create phylogenetic diagrams called these.
Bacteria
Made up of small, single celled prokaryotic organisms that usually have a cell wall and reproduce by cellular fission.
Archaea
The second domain also consists of prokaryotes.
Eukarya
Consists of eukaryotic organisms.
Eubacteria
Aligns with the domain bacteria.
Archaebacteria
Aligns with the domain archaea.
Protista
One of the four kingdoms of eukaryotes.
Fungi
The second kingdom of eukaryotes.
Plantae
The third kingdom of eukaryotes, which consists of eukaryotic, multicellular plants.
Animalia
The fourth kingdom of eukaryotes.