Interpersonal Communication

Vocabulary from chapter 1, 2, 3, and 4 of Interpersonal Communication: Everyday Encounters by Julia Wood, 7th edition. For COMM 1500 at University of Georgia, Dr. Murray's class. Includes additional concepts from lectures.
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I-It Communication
Communication in which one person is treated as an instrument or object (a waiter, a homeless person, sometimes children)
I-You Communicaiton
Not fully engaged as unique individuals
I-Thou Communication
Each person affirms the other as cherished and unique.
Features of Interpersonal Communication
Selective, Systemic, Individual, Processual, Transactional, Personal Knowledge, Meaning Creating
Principles of Interpersonal Communication
We cannot not communicate
Interpersonal Communication is Irreversible.
Interpersonal Communication involves ethical choices
People construct meanings in Interpersonal Communication
Metacommunication affects meanings.
Interpersonal Communication develops and sustains relationships
Interpersonal Communication is not a panacea
Interpersonal Communication effectiveness can be learned
Dual perspective
understanding both our own and another person's perspective, thoughts, or feelings.
The Self
multidimensional process of internalizing and acting from social perspectives.
Particular Others
Specific people who are important in our lives
Direct Definition
communication that tells us explicitly who we are by directly labeling us and our behaviors
Reflected Appraisal
our perception of another's view of us
Identity Scripts
Rules for living and identity (What is expected of us). Assign our roles in society.
Attachment Styles
Secure, Fearful, Dismissive, anxious/ambivalent
Secure Attachment Style
Caregiver is consistently loving and attentive. Child develops a positive sense of self-worth and a positive view of others.
Fearful Attachment Style
caregiver is unavailable or communicates in negative, rejecting, or even abusive ways. Children infer that they are unworthy of love and that others are not loving
Dismissive Attachment Style
Caregivers are disinterested in, rejecting of, or unavailable to children. Children don't feel unlovable, but feel that others are dismissable and unloving.
Anxious/ambivolent attachment style
Children feel they are the source of every problem because the caregiver is not consistent.
Generalized Other
Broadly held social views
ego boundaries
define where an individual stops and the rest of the world begins
self-disclosure
revealing information about ourselves that others are unlikely to discover on their own
self-sabotage
telling ourselves we are no good, can't do something, there's no point in trying to change, etc.
social comparison
process of assessing ourselves in relation to others to form judgments of our own talents, abilities, qualities, and so forth.
perception
the active process of creating meaning by selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations, and other phenomena.
constructivism
a theory for explaining how we organize experience that states that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called schemata.
prototype
defines the clearest or most representative examples of some category
personal constructs
mental yardsticks we use to measure a person or situation along a bipolar dimension of judgment. ex: intelligent-not intelligent
stereotype
predictive generalization applied to a person or situation.
scripts
guides to action that consist of sequences of activities that are expected of us and others in particular situations.
interpretation
subjective process of explaining our perceptions in ways that make sense to us.
attribution
explanation of why something happened or why someone acts a certain way.
self-serving bias
bias toward ourselves and our interests (in making attributions)
fundamental attribution error
overestimation of the internal causes of others' undesirable behaviors and underestimation of the external causes
standpoint
a point of view shaped by political awareness of the social location of a group
cognitive complexity
the number of personal constructs used, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to shape perceptions
implicit personality theory
explains how the self influences interpersonal perceptions. it is a collection of unspoken assumptions about how various qualities fit together in human personalities.
interpersonal needs theory
we need affection, inclusion, and control. IPC helps us meet these needs.
self-awareness
the ability to step outside yourself, view yourself as a unique person distinct from the environment, and to reflect on thoughts, feelings, and behavior
self-concept
overall perception of who you are
self-esteem
overall value, ideal self vs. ought self.
ought self
the person others wish and expect you to be
uppers, downers, and vultures
uppers communicate positively about us, downers communicate negatively about us, and vultures are extreme downers
self-discrepency theory
self esteem is determined by how your ideal self compares to your ought self. by Edward T Higgings.
perception as a process
selection-focus attention on stimuli in your environment
organization-structuring selected info into a coherent pattern
interpretation-assigning meaning to info that we've selected
salience
the degree to which people or aspects of their communication attract our attention
actor-observer effect
tendency to attribute external factors to explain your own behavior
uncertainty reduction theory
passive, active and interactive strategies
extraversion
degree to which a person is interested in interacting regularly with others Megan-Justin
agreeableness
degree to which a person is trusting, friendly, and cooperative Emma-Morgan
conscientiousness
the degree to which a person is organized and persistent in pursuing his/her goals Mallory-Emma
neuroticism
the degree to which a person experiences negative thoughts about himself. Cory-Justin
openness
the degree to which a person is willing to consider new ideas and take an interest in culture Mom-James
implicit personality theory
because a person is high or low on a certain trait, we assume they are high or low on other traits that cluster together
gestalt
general and global impressions of people, either positive or negative.
primacy effect
we emphasize the first information we learn about others
negativity effect
we emphasize the negative info we learn about others
halo effect
we tend to positively interpret others' actions because we have a positive Gestalt of them.
perception-checking
check your punctuation, knowledge, attributions, perceptual influences, and impressions
Check your Punctuation
ask other people to share their point of view with you regarding the sequence of events or how they are seeing things
check your knowledge
never assume that you have the corner on the truth. Ask other people to explain their meaning to you.
check your attributions
all behaviors are a result of a multitude of external and internal forces
check your perceptual influences
consider how your culture, gender, age, personality help shape your perceptions of others
check your impressions
remember that the Gestalts that you have may bias your perception of subsequent information that you learn about others.
constitutive rules of language
define word meaning and specify how we should interpret and perform different kinds of communication
regulative rules of language
govern how we use language when we verbally communicate. They guide sentence structure, spelling, how we converse
denotative meaning
refers to the literal, conventional meaning that most people in a culture have all agreed that this is the meaning of this symbol. Dictionary definition.
connotative meanings
varies from person to person. derived from personal and subjective experience with a verbal symbol.
low context cultures
tend not to presume listeners share beliefs and values.
high context cultures
assume listeners share common knowledge
cooperative verbal communication
producing easily understood messages, taking active ownership for what you say, and making others feel included.
cooperative principle
Paul Grice's argument that meaningful interactions depend on communicating effectively by being informative, honest, relevant, and clear.
linguistic determinism
language controls what we think and perceive
linear model of communication
one person is giver and one is the receiver
punctuation
defines beginnings and endings of interaction episodes.
totalizing
occurs when we respond to a person as if one label totally represents who he or she is
loaded language
words that strongly slant perceptions and thus meanings
static evaluation
an assessment that suggests that something is unchanging or fixed.
indexing
technique that reminds us that our evaluations apply only to specific times and circumestances.
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