Honors History ch 6-7
Terms in this set (49)
Russia to Alaska
between North and South America Central America region from modern Mexico to Hondurus and El Salvador
means " rubber people" domesticated turkey , barkless dogs, ceremonial centers statues of large human heads, monumental teples, pyramids and temples
losing team sacrificed ritual form high ranking captives prisoners of war, bloodletting ritual
Olmecs cultivated, and it became the staple food of region
people who as early 2000 B.C.E. began to explore and settle islands of pacific ocean basin
beach in New Caledonia 1500-500 B.C.E. trade communication system 2800 miles agriculture villages chiefdoms
earliest heirs of Olmec, Temple of Giant Jaguar- most important political center at Tikal lots of conflicts cacao beans as money, made a calendar with solar 365 days and ritual calendar had 260 days
A very popular cult that spread through Peru in the 900's to the 300's BCE. During the Cults era, Andean society became complex. It was unknown if they had shared religious beliefs or any political order.
a society in the Andean valleys, near the Moche River, that left behind a remarkable artistic legacy. They made ceramics that represented gods and everyday life.
a type of rock that the Mesoamerican's made weapons from
the most important Maya political center between the 4th-9th centuries. It was a city that had temples, pyramids, palaces, and public buildings.
a Maya city that had two large pyramids (pyramids of the sun and moon) and was home to almost 200,000.
a Maya creation myth, taught that the gods had created humans out of maize and water, the ingredients that became human flesh and blood
Temple of the Giant Jaguar
a stepped pyramid that was 47 meters high (154 feet) and was located in Tikal
an Olmec city that was a ceremonial center after the one at San Lorenzo
the first Olmec ceremonial center that arose about 1200 B.C.E.
Humans came to Oceania 60,000 years ago traveling by water craft, migrants to the Americas arrived in 1300 B.C. crossing the baring land bridge.
1. How did humans come to settle in all parts of the Americas and in Oceania?
Mesoamerican societies cultivated maize, built ceremonial centers and maintained a calendar. They also borrowed the Olmec ball game
2. What traditions begun by the Olmecs were later adopted by other Mesoamerican societies?
They believed human sacrifice would prompt the Gods to send water for their crops.
3. What role did human sacrifice play in early American societies?
Cool and moist climates provided natural harvests of squash and wild potatoes.
4. How did the geography of South America influence the development of the early complex societies?
People of the Mochica state and the Chavin cult produced many elaborate forms of art. The Chavin cult beliefs did not develop into a state or any organized political order, and the Mochica did.
5. Compare and contrast the societies that existed under the cult and Mochica state.
The Lapita people were the first Austronesian migrants to sail into the pacific ocean and establish settlements in the pacific island. For about 1000 years the Lapita people maintained extensive networks of trade and communication. After 500 B.C. Lapita trade networks began to decline.
6. Describe the origins, development, and decline of the Lapita society.
First Persian empire, Medes and Persians
King of Persia, great ruler, reigned from 558-530 BCE, launched Persia's imperial adventure, laid foundation for first Persian empire
Son of Cyrus, conquered Egypt and brought its wealth to Persia, reigned 530-522 BCE
Greatest Persian King, Persepolis - capital, reigned 521-486 BCE, more important as an administrator than as a conqueror, had canal that connected the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, divided the empire into satrapies, qanats, Persian royal road, standardized coins, respected local relgions
Reigned 486-465 BCE, retreated from policy of cultural toleration, burned Athens
500-479 BCE, rebellion of Ionian Greeks, Persian rulers failed to put down the rebellion, sparred for 150 years
23 satrapies, administrative taxation districts governed by satraps
Governors of the satrapies
King Eyes and Ears
Spies of the king who reported to the king making sure the Satraps were doing things right
Organized a courier service, built roads, standardized coins
Imperial Bureaucrats - people who managed local affairs, government officials Free class- artisans, craftsmen, peasants, priests, priestesses slaves-- prisoners of war, debtors
Persian Social Classes
an underground canal which lead to enhanced agricultural production and population growth
a highway in Persia extending from Susa in west Iran to Sardis in Asia Minor
the capital that Darius built to centralize his administration
formed by Seleuceus, they retained a Achaemenid systems of administration and taxation, as well as the imperial roads and postal service
established themselves as lords of a powerful empire based in Iran that they extended to Mesopotamia
group from Persia who defeated the Parthians and ruled until 651 CE Shapur I-alive from 239-272 CE, emperor that stabilized the western frontier of the empire
imperial capital of the Sasanids, also capital of Parthian empire,, located near Baghdad
Parthians' greatest conqueror
hymns made to honor the gods and deities
religion that emerged from the teachings of Zarathustra Ahura Mazda-wise lord; supreme god Angra Mainyu: destructive spirit
Darius was a good general but he was revolutionary as an administrator. His policies toward conquered people were very relaxed and he was a just ruler. He was also very tolerant of other religions, which is a rare trait in a ruler even today.
Why does the book say that Darius was "more important as an administrator than as a conqueror"?
The Achaemenid empire depended on a finely tuned balance between central initiative and local administration. Appointed governors to serve as agents of the central administration and oversee affairs in various regions. Darius divided his realm into 23 satrapies—administrative and taxation districts governed by satraps. Had imperial spies ("the eyes and ears of the king") who traveled throughout the empire making sure rebellion was eliminated early.
Describe the administrative structure of the Achaemenid empire.
Built excellent roads across the empire called the Persian Royal Road. Organized a mail service and built 111 postal stations at intervals of 40 to 50 kilometers (25 to 30 miles) along the Royal Road. Improved existing routes to Egypt and Mesopotamia, and built new roads linking Persia with northern India, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt.
In what ways did Darius, and his successors, promote communication and commerce throughout the empire?
Alexander of Macedon preserved the Achaemenid Empire by keeping the same administrative structure, and he also confirmed the appointments of many satraps and other officials. He destroyed elements of the Achaemenid Empire by accidently or purposely burning down the Persian capital Persepolis.
In what ways did Alexander of Macedon both destroy and preserve elements of the Achaemenid empire?
They were not strict monotheists, they recognized Ahura Mazda as a supreme deity, but also worshipped six lesser deities. It is considered a moralistic religion because they are allowed to enjoy the pleasures of life as long as they do so in moderation and behave honestly toward others. Several faiths adopted the teachings such as one God was responsible for all creation and that an evil being worked against God.
What were the basic teachings of Zoroastrianism. Why is it considered a highly moralistic religion? How did Zoroastrianism influence other religions?