Business Info Systems-Chapter 10

increase or decrease revenues
organizations have the ability to directly increase profits by implementing successful IT systems. organizations can lose millions when software fails or key information is stolen
repair or damage to brand reputation
technologies such as CRM can directly enhance a company's brand reputation
prevent or incur liabilities
technology such as CAT scans, MRIs, and mammograms can save lives.. faulty technology in airplanes ect. can cause massive damage
increase or decrease productivity
CRM and SCM software can directly increase a company's productivity. Large losses in productivity can also occur when software malfunctions or crashes
waterfall methodology
activity-based process in which each phase in the systems development life cycle is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance
the business problem
any flaws in accurately defining and articulating the business problem in terms of what the business users actually require flow onward to the next phase
the plan
managing costs, resources, and time constraints is difficult in the waterfall sequence
the solution
the waterfall methodology is problematic in that it assumes users can specify all business requirements in advance
rapid application development (RAD)
emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process
is a smaller-scale representation or working model of the users' requirement or proposed design for an information system
agile methodology
a form of XP, aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components
scope creep
occurs when the scope of the project increases
feature creep
occurs when developers add extra features that were not part of the initial requirements
participatory design methodology
promotes the active involvement of users in the information systems development process
project management software
specifically supports the long-term and day-to-day management and execution of the steps in a project
project deliverables
are any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result that is produced to complete a project
project milestones
represent key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed
project scope
defines the work that must be completed to deliver a product with the specified features and functions
techniques for choosing strategic projects
focus on organizational goals, categorize projects, perform a financial analysis
PERT(program evaluation and review technique) chart
a graphical network model that depicts a project's tasks and the relationships between those tasks
gantt chart
a simple bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calendar
a common approach uding the professional expertise within an organization
an arrangement by which one organization provide a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house
onshore outsourcing
the process of engaging another company within the same country for services
nearshore outsourcing
refers to contracting and outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country
offshore outsourcing
is using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems
systems development life cycle (SDLC)
'software life cycle' is the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
planning phase
involves establishing a high-level plan of the intended project
critical success factor (CSF)
a factor that is critical to an organization's success
feasibility study
determines if the proposed solution is feasible
value chain analysis
determines the extent to which the new system will add value to the organization
strategic alignment
projects that are in line with the organization's strategic goals and the objectives are given priority over projects not in line
cost/benefit analysis
determines which projects offer the organization the greatest benefit and at the lowest cost
resources availability
determine the amount and type of resources required to complete the project and determine if the organization has these resources available
project size, duration, difficulty
determine the number of individuals, amount of time, and the technical difficulty of the project
economic feasibility study
identidies the financial benefits and costs associated with the systems development project
legal and contractual feasibility study
examines all potential legal and contractual ramifications of the proposed system
operational feasibility study
examines the likelihood that the project will attain its desired objectives
schedule feasibility study
assesses the likelihood that all potential time frames and completion dates will be met
technical feasibility study
determines the firm's ability to build and intergrate the proposed system
analysis phase
involves analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations
requirement definition document
contains the final set of business requirements, place in order of importance
process modelling
graphically representing the processes that capture information between a system and its environment
data flow diagram (DFD)
illustrates the movement of information between external entities and the processes and data stores within the system
computer-aided software enigineering
tools are software suites that automate systems analysis, design and development
commercial off-the-shelf software (COTS)
a software package or solution that is purchased to support one or more business functions and information systems
design phase
invovles describing the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams
the activity of drawing a graphical representation of a design
graphical user interface (GUI)
the interface to an information system
data models
represent a formal way to express data relationships to a database management system
enitity relationship diagram (ERD)
is a technique for documenting the relationships between entities in a database environment
development phase
involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system
testing phase
involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and interoperability
test conditions
the detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step
implementation phase
involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system
application testing
verifies that all units of code work together and the total system satisfies all of its funcitonal and operational requirements
backup and recovery testing
tests the ability of an application to be restarted after failure
documentation testing
verifies that the instruction guide are helpful and accurate
integration testing
exposes faults in the integration of software components or software units
regression testing
determines if a functional improvement or repair to the system has affected the other functional aspects of the software
unit testing
tests each unit of code as soon as the unit is complete to expose faults in the unit regardless of its interaction with other units
user acceptance testing (UTA)
determines whether a system satisfies its acceptance criteria, enabling the customer to decide whether or not to accept a system
parallel implementation
using both the old and new systems until it is evident that the new system performs correctly
phase implementation
implementing the new system in phases (eg. accounts receivable then accounts payable)
pilot implementation
having only a small group of people ust the new systems until it is eveident that the new system performs correctly and then adding the remaining people to the new system
plunge implementation
discarding the old system completely and immediately using the new system
workshop training
is set in a classroom-type environment and led by an instructor
maintenance phase
involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals
help desk
is a group of people who respond to internal system user questions
adaptive maintenance
making changes to increase system functionality to meet new business requirements
corrective maintenance
making changes to repair system defects
perfective maintenance
making changes to enhance the system and improve such things as processing performance and usability
preventive maintenance
making changes to reduce the chance of furture system failures
change management system
includes a collection of procedures to document a change request and define the steps necessary to consider the change based on expected impact
change control board (CCB)
responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests