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increase or decrease revenues

organizations have the ability to directly increase profits by implementing successful IT systems. organizations can lose millions when software fails or key information is stolen

repair or damage to brand reputation

technologies such as CRM can directly enhance a company's brand reputation

prevent or incur liabilities

technology such as CAT scans, MRIs, and mammograms can save lives.. faulty technology in airplanes ect. can cause massive damage

increase or decrease productivity

CRM and SCM software can directly increase a company's productivity. Large losses in productivity can also occur when software malfunctions or crashes

waterfall methodology

activity-based process in which each phase in the systems development life cycle is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance

the business problem

any flaws in accurately defining and articulating the business problem in terms of what the business users actually require flow onward to the next phase

the plan

managing costs, resources, and time constraints is difficult in the waterfall sequence

the solution

the waterfall methodology is problematic in that it assumes users can specify all business requirements in advance

rapid application development (RAD)

emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process


is a smaller-scale representation or working model of the users' requirement or proposed design for an information system

agile methodology

a form of XP, aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components

scope creep

occurs when the scope of the project increases

feature creep

occurs when developers add extra features that were not part of the initial requirements

participatory design methodology

promotes the active involvement of users in the information systems development process

project management software

specifically supports the long-term and day-to-day management and execution of the steps in a project

project deliverables

are any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result that is produced to complete a project

project milestones

represent key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed

project scope

defines the work that must be completed to deliver a product with the specified features and functions

techniques for choosing strategic projects

focus on organizational goals, categorize projects, perform a financial analysis

PERT(program evaluation and review technique) chart

a graphical network model that depicts a project's tasks and the relationships between those tasks

gantt chart

a simple bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calendar


a common approach uding the professional expertise within an organization


an arrangement by which one organization provide a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house

onshore outsourcing

the process of engaging another company within the same country for services

nearshore outsourcing

refers to contracting and outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country

offshore outsourcing

is using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems

systems development life cycle (SDLC)

'software life cycle' is the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance

planning phase

involves establishing a high-level plan of the intended project

critical success factor (CSF)

a factor that is critical to an organization's success

feasibility study

determines if the proposed solution is feasible

value chain analysis

determines the extent to which the new system will add value to the organization

strategic alignment

projects that are in line with the organization's strategic goals and the objectives are given priority over projects not in line

cost/benefit analysis

determines which projects offer the organization the greatest benefit and at the lowest cost

resources availability

determine the amount and type of resources required to complete the project and determine if the organization has these resources available

project size, duration, difficulty

determine the number of individuals, amount of time, and the technical difficulty of the project

economic feasibility study

identidies the financial benefits and costs associated with the systems development project

legal and contractual feasibility study

examines all potential legal and contractual ramifications of the proposed system

operational feasibility study

examines the likelihood that the project will attain its desired objectives

schedule feasibility study

assesses the likelihood that all potential time frames and completion dates will be met

technical feasibility study

determines the firm's ability to build and intergrate the proposed system

analysis phase

involves analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations

requirement definition document

contains the final set of business requirements, place in order of importance

process modelling

graphically representing the processes that capture information between a system and its environment

data flow diagram (DFD)

illustrates the movement of information between external entities and the processes and data stores within the system

computer-aided software enigineering

tools are software suites that automate systems analysis, design and development

commercial off-the-shelf software (COTS)

a software package or solution that is purchased to support one or more business functions and information systems

design phase

invovles describing the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams


the activity of drawing a graphical representation of a design

graphical user interface (GUI)

the interface to an information system

data models

represent a formal way to express data relationships to a database management system

enitity relationship diagram (ERD)

is a technique for documenting the relationships between entities in a database environment

development phase

involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system

testing phase

involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and interoperability

test conditions

the detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step

implementation phase

involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system

application testing

verifies that all units of code work together and the total system satisfies all of its funcitonal and operational requirements

backup and recovery testing

tests the ability of an application to be restarted after failure

documentation testing

verifies that the instruction guide are helpful and accurate

integration testing

exposes faults in the integration of software components or software units

regression testing

determines if a functional improvement or repair to the system has affected the other functional aspects of the software

unit testing

tests each unit of code as soon as the unit is complete to expose faults in the unit regardless of its interaction with other units

user acceptance testing (UTA)

determines whether a system satisfies its acceptance criteria, enabling the customer to decide whether or not to accept a system

parallel implementation

using both the old and new systems until it is evident that the new system performs correctly

phase implementation

implementing the new system in phases (eg. accounts receivable then accounts payable)

pilot implementation

having only a small group of people ust the new systems until it is eveident that the new system performs correctly and then adding the remaining people to the new system

plunge implementation

discarding the old system completely and immediately using the new system

workshop training

is set in a classroom-type environment and led by an instructor

maintenance phase

involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals

help desk

is a group of people who respond to internal system user questions

adaptive maintenance

making changes to increase system functionality to meet new business requirements

corrective maintenance

making changes to repair system defects

perfective maintenance

making changes to enhance the system and improve such things as processing performance and usability

preventive maintenance

making changes to reduce the chance of furture system failures

change management system

includes a collection of procedures to document a change request and define the steps necessary to consider the change based on expected impact

change control board (CCB)

responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests

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