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30 terms

Biology

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Photosynthesis
Chemical process by which plants use light energy to make sugar from water and carbon dioxide.
Cellular Respiration
Process in cells by which oxygen is chemically combined with food molecules and energy is released.
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate, the major energy-carrying molecule of the cell.
Glucose
Simple sugar made by plants through the process of photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll
Green pigment in plants that captures the energy of sunlight for use in photosynthesis.
Chloroplast
A structure in a plant cell that contains chlorophyll.
Photosynthesis Equation
6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Cellular Respiration Equation
C6H12O6 + 6O2---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Cell membrane
Outermost layer of the cell that controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
Cytoplasm
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Nucleus
Structure near the center of a cell that contains the cell's DNA
Chromosome
A structure located in the nucleus of a cell, made of DNA.
Gene
Segment of DNA, found on a chromosome, that determines the inheritance of a particular trait
DNA
The material found in the cell's nucleus, that determines the genetic traits of the organism
Mitochondria
Structures in the cell that transform the energy in food into a form cells can use to carry out their activities.
Vacuole
Fluid-filled structure that holds waste products or substances needed by the cell.
Lysosome
Small round structures found in the cytoplasm that contain digestive enzymes. Usually not found in plant cells.
Ribosome
Structure in a cell where proteins are put together
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Structure in a cell that is involved in making proteins and transporting materials.
Golgi body
Cell structure that helps package and distribute products with-in the cell
Vesicle
small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell
Cell wall
Stiff outer barrier of a plant cell, outside the cell membrane, which is made mostly of cellulose
Prokaryote
One-celled organism that does not have membrane-bound nucleus or organelles.
Eukaryote
Organism made up of cells that have a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles
Permeable
Allowing substances to pass or diffuse through. Pores are the widest and it is not very selective.
Impermeable
Preventing substances from passing or diffusing through. Pores are the smallest and it is very selective.
Semipermeable
membranes that allow some substances through but not others.
Osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Diffusion
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Active Transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy