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Fungi - Lab
Things to know from the "Kingdom Fungi Notes" and the "Fungi Packet" for the test in Biology.
Terms in this set (97)
What are Fungi?
Eukaryotic, heterotrophs, with cell walls made of chitin, most are multicellular, and get energy by absorbing
Which Fungus is not multicellular?
How do Fungi digest food?
Digest food outside of their body and absorb
Describe the inside of Hyphae?
Hyphae are filled with cytoplasm and nuclei, and consist of a tube formed from a wall enclosing cytoplasm and a vacuole.
What are Hyphae?
Hyphae are microscopic branching filaments, filled with cytoplasm and nuclei
Some fungis have hyphae with what?
What part of the fungis do we see?
The fruiting body
Fruiting bodies are what?
Reproductive structures that have many fruiting bodies from one mycelium
Many hyphae tangle together where?
Many hyphae tangle together underground in the mycelium part of the fungus
What is Athlete's Foot?
Fungus that forms a mycelium in the outer layers of skin and releases spores when stratched (ringworm)
What are "Linchens"?
Fungus that has a mutualistic relationship with algae/cyanobacteria, and break down rocks and use the energy from algae.
What are "Linchens" sensitive to?
air pollution and are the first to die
What are "Mycorrhizae"?
Fungus that has a mutualistic relationship with plant roots.
Describe the relationhsip between plant roots and fungi?
Mutualistic relationship where hyphae cover plant roots and help absorb water and plants give fungi some sugar (80% of all plants have this relationship)
Roots are plugged into a branching _______________ called mycelium, that connect plants, even of different species.
Describe the relationship between fungi and algae?
Mutualistic relationship where fungus breaks down rock and uses energy from algae
What are four groups (clades) of fungi?
Zygomyctes, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Chytrids.
What are Zygomycetes?
Common molds that have rhizoids that penetrate into bread and stolons along the surface of bread.
_________________ hold sporangia at their tips which hold spores ready to grow into a new fungus.
What are Ascomycota?
Sac fungi that cup fungi and yeast and have hyphae form two thouch.
Ascoumycota produce a fruiting body where an ___________ forms and grows a new mycelium.
What are Basidiomycota?
Club fungi that have a very elaborate life cycle and grow very fast.
What are three examples of Basidiomycota?
Mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi
What are Chytrids?
Only fungi that reproduce with flagelated spores/cells and live in water and moist soil.
What is mycelium?
A loose network of the delicate filaments hyphae that form the body of a fungus, consisting of the feeding and reproducing hyphae
How are the cell walls of fungi similar to the exoskeleton of insects?
they both contain chitin
What are the characteristics of Zygomycetes?
They have cells walls made of chitin and zygosporangium
What are the characteristics of Basidiomycetes?
They have cells walls made of chitin and cross walls between cells
What are the characteristics of Chyrids?
They have cells walls made of chitin, reproductive cells with flagella, and cannot live outide of water/moist soil
What are the characteristics of Ascomycetes?
They have cells walls made of chitin, ascus, and cross walls between cells
The hyphal walls are made of a substance called _______________ with is an organic _________________ compound.
What do Fungi use their many nuclei for?
to store DNA in groups for reproduction
Whay aren't fungi classified as plants?
Fungi cannot make thier own food
Fungi feed on decaying matter and are classified as ________________.
What is Rhizopus stolonifer?
a mass of hyphae that grows into bread to digest it
Vertical hyphae produce what structures?
What is the function of sporangiophores?
to reproduce asexually
A new _____________ forms when spores spread and land in a suitable place.
When a new mycelium forms by spores spreading, it is what form of reproduction?
Sexual reproduction is only possible in Rhizopus if what is true?
Sexual reproduction is between two different strains of Rhizopus
What are the two hyphae called that are involved in sexual reproduction?
"+" and "-" hyphae
The cell wall of zygospore ____________ as the hyphae break down.
Describe what happens when the tips of the two hyphae grow together in sexual reproduction.
The tips swell and are cut off by cross walls
What happens to the nuclei in the tips of the hyphae?
the nuclei divid rapidly in the tips then fuse when the cross walls break down
What is the advantage of the zygospores if it is extremely dry or hot?
the zygospore can ramain dormant for a long time surviving drought or extreme temperatures
What happends when a zygospores germinates?
It forms a single hyphae and sporangium that releases spores
Under favorable conditions some of the hyphae just below the soil, mass together into ______________ and form a spherical body that grows rapidly and pushes above the surface.
What is another name for the stalk?
What is another name for the cap?
What is the ring around the stalk called and what causes it to form?
Annulus forms when the cap breaks free leaving rings of tissue
Where do spores form and what are the spore forming stuctures called?
on the gills under the cap on structures called basidia
List the structures used in asexual reproduction in Fungi.
Rhizoids, Sporangium, and Sporaniophores
List the structures used in sexual reproduction in fungi.
Zygospore, Fruiting body, Fusing Hyphae, Basidia, Stype
Whay might all the mushrooms found at the base of a tree have the exact same DNA?
The fungus could be a fruiting body of a single mycelium
Why might you still encounter mold on foods even in very clean kitchens?
The spores can live dormant and come into the kitchen with the food
Each Hyphae thread consists of a tube formed from a wall enclosing cytoplasm and a ___________________.
Sometimes the hyphae are divided into compartments by cross walls called ____________.
Some fungi also have a sack like structure at their base called the _____________.
Fungal cells have DNA where _____.
Some fungi and bacteria act as _____ and keep chemicals cycling through the ecosystems.
Fungal cells have a cell wall containing _____.
A mutualistic relationship between soil fungi and plants' roots is called a _____.
Photosynthesis is done by the _____ component of lichen.
A(n) _____ fungus is the source of the antibiotic
Club fungi produce fruiting bodies called _____.
______________ is most likely to prevent you from enjoying a sandwich?
During zygospore asexual reproduction, all structures involved are _____
There are no fungi that _____.
The fruiting body of the sac fungi is called the _____.
Fungi are incapable of producing their own food. That makes them what type of organism ?
Fungus can be
Parasites and Mutualistic
Fungus domains are in what domain?
What another name for Zygomycota fungi
Black bread molds
What another name for Basidiomycota fungi (mushrooms)
What another name for sac fungi
Ascomycota or sac fungi includes ?
cup fungi, morels, truffles, Pencillium, Aspergillus, candida albican dutch elm disease, Powdery mildews, and LSD
During sexual and asexual reproduction these fungi produces ?
What two fungi produce fruiting bodies (reproductive structure) ?
Sac(Basidomycota )and club (Ascomycota)
In black bread molds 3 types of Mycelium exist
STOLONS which are horizontal Hyphae, RHIZOIDS which are root like and SPORANGIOPHORES which are stalk looking.
Club fungi are mushrooms and is commonly know as
Structure of a club fungi (Basidomycota)
STALK is the upright portion that supports the cap. ANNULUS is a membrane surrounding the stalk button shaped. CAP is the Unbrella shaped portion of the mushroom
Each Basidioco can release ______________ during Meiosis, which results in haploid Hyphae cell
Symbiosis is when two different Organism live and function together. How do a lichen and Algae benefit each other ?
The fungus needs the photosynthesis of the algae to provide nutrients and the algae needs the protected environment provided by the fungus in order to survive
Spores of fungi develop into ________ which are called hyphae
What are three types of Lichens
Crustose, Fruticose, Foliose
The ROOTS of a plant and fungus is an example of what type of symbionic relationship ?
The sac in ascomycetes in which the sexual spores are formed is called
sexual stages in fruiting bodies which happen to most ascomycetes are called ?
club-shaped, reproductive structure in which club fungi produce spores is called ?
The combination or association of a fungus and either an alga or an autotrophic bacterium that live together in a mutualistic relationship is called a ?
Fungi that are mostly aquatic and have flagellated spores, they probably represent the most primitive fungal lineage (first kind of fungus) are know as ?
the stalk of a mushroom
The top portion of a mushroom, the final fruiting structure of many basidiomycetes
What are the 3 types of hyphae?
Rhizoids, Sporophores, Stolons
what are 3 types of asexual reproduction in fungi?
blooming condition, fragmentation, spore production
What are the names of the 3 phyla in Kingdom Fungi?
Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota
a membrane surrounding the stalk of a mushroom where the immature or button was attached is called ?
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