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48 terms

Clinical Chemistry 2 - Electrolytes

STUDY
PLAY
Roughly _____ of our body weight is fluid
2/3
Body fluids are contained w/in compartments which are separated by a semi-permeable membrane making some ______ and some ______
intracellular fluids, extracellular fluids
2/3 of the bodies H2O content is _____, and the remaining 1/3 is _____.
Intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid
Any substance which, in solution, dissociates into ions and is thus capable of conducting an electric current
Electrolytes
Electrolytes exist as positively charged particles known as _________, OR negatively charged particles known as __________.
Cations, Anions
Cations(+) move towards the _____, which is negatively charged. Anions(-) move towards the _____, which is positively charged. Remember (+) moves towards a (-)
cathode (-), anode(+)
The common cations are:
-Sodium - Na
-Potassium - K
-Calcium - Ca
-Magnesium - Mg
The common anions are:
-Chloride - Cl
-Bicarbonate
-Phosphate
-Sulfate
-Organic Salts
The major electrolytes tested for in the lab are:
-Sodium
-Potassium
-Calcium
-Magnesium
-Chloride
-Bicarbonate (Carbon Dioxide)
-Phosphorus
Some of the major functions of electrolytes include:
-Maintain osmostic pressure
-Regulate hydration of various body fluid compartments
-Maintain pH
-Regulate proper function of heart and muscles
-Oxidation-reduction reactions
-Essential cofactors for enzymes(Co-Factors activate enzymes)
The total concentration of cations w/in the body is on average _______, and _________ for anions. In other words, ____ equals _____ making the body fluids always ___________
155 mEq/l, 155mEq/l, positive, negative, electrically neutral
A serum electrolyte profile is one of the most important tests ordered by physicians, what does it includes:
-Sodium
-Potassium
-Chloride
-Bicarbonate (Carbon dioxide)
The major cation of extracellular fluid
Sodium
_________ plays an important role in the maintenance and distribution of water and osmotic pressure in various fluid compartments as well as assist in regulating acid/base balance
Sodium
The major route of sodium excretion is:
by the kidneys in urine output
Excess sodium is termed __________, while a deficiency in sodium is termed __________
Hypernatremia, Hyponatremia
Inflammation or Edema is typically associated with an increased volume of which electrolyte?
Sodium
An increase in osmolality leads too ______
Too much solute, not enough solvent, so the brain causes thirst, which will lower osmolality, and you will produce more vasopressin ADH, which will make you pee less.
Hypernatremia can be a result of which conditions?
-Cardiac failure
-Liver disease
-Renal disease causing GFR reduction causing decreased sodium filtration
-Hyperalosternoism
-Pregnancy
-CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE causing less blood to pump causing less sodium to be filtered
Hyponatremia can be caused by:
-GI losses
-Excessive sweating
-Renal disease
-Adrenal insufficiency
-Diuretic therapy
-Osmotic diuresis
-Burns
Major intracellular cation
Potassium
After partial removal from the plasma by glomerular filtration, how much of the potassium is reabsorbed by the tubules?
Nearly ALL potassium
Almost all of the bodys total potassium is found in the _______ water space.
Intracellular
Total potassium of the body is influenced by which three factors?
Age, sex, and muslce mass (where most body potassium is contained)
Potassium output occurs in small amounts from the _______ and ______, but most output is in the ________.
GI tract, skin, urine
Excess potassium is called ________
Hyperkalemia
Decreased potassium is called _______
Hypokalemia
Of all the electrolytes which one is most affected by hemolysis?
Potassium
Functions of potassium include:
-Cardiac muscle activity
-Acid/base balance
-Osmotic pressure between intra and extracellular
A direct method used to determine sodium and potassium and chloride
ISE test Ion Selective Electrode
ISE methods can be used to test which specimens?
Serum, Urine, CSF
How long should does the tech have to separate the cells from the specimen for sodium and potassium to avoid shifts?
3 hours
Can I use a hemolyzed sample for a sodium and potassium test?
No, hemolyzed specimens will release potassium from the cells causing a false increase in potassium
How long is a sodium and potassium and chloride sample good for?
One week @ refrigerated or room temps
One year frozen
Along w/ bicarbonate, this is the most commonly analyzed anion
Chloride
The anion of the greatest extracellular concentration
Chloride
A decrease in osmolality leads too _______
not enough solute, too much solvent, vaspressin ADH will decrease in production, which will make you pee more
90% of the osmolality result is _____
Sodium
_____ and _____ regulate blood volume.
Renin/Angiotension, Aldosterone
Renin/Angiotension are released by the _______
kidneys
Aldosterone is from the ______
Adtrenal Gland
more ______ results in an increased blood pressure with vasoconstriction
angiotension
_______ results in more sodium reabsorption into the kidneys, also increases H2O, because water follows sodium
Aldosterone
the system that is controlled by stretch receptors and Renin, Angiotension, aldosterone is called?
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
the difference between osmometer result and calclated result is called _______
osmol gap
Test for Na with ______
ISE Ion selective electrode
Symptoms of low sodium
lethargy, neuro muscular issues, seizures, coma, death
symptoms of high sodium
muscle spasms, restlessness, seizures