in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
in Freud's theory, the level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousness
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. Operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
Freud's theory regarding the id's desire to maximize pleasure and minimize pain in order to achieve immediate gratification.
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. Operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
According the Freud, the attempt by the ego to satisfy both the id and the superego while still considering the reality of the situation.
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Freud's first stage of psychosexual development during which pleasure is centered in the mouth
Freud's second stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on the elimination or holding onto feces. The stage is often thought of as representing a child's ability to control his or her own world.
The third of Freud's psychosexual development in which genitals are the source of pleasure and the Oedipus Complex begins
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
a defense mechanism in which unacceptable energies are directed into socially acceptable outlets, such as sports
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli to trigger projection of one's inner thoughts and feelings
Rorschach Inkblot Test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
Empirically Derived Test
a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.
Unconditional Positive Regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
(1) a sense of one's identity and personal worth. (2) all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question "Who am I?"
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
External Locus of Control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
Social Cognitive Perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)