Terms in this set (97)
A type of transition that shows significant space between time
A type of transition that acts like a moving picture and shows little or no closure (closure is meant to link panels like mause lying across panels)
A type of transition that shoes progression with actions
A type of transition that works like: (runner, stopwatch, click)
a type of transition that shows a change of view
A type of transition showing random pannles with no connection
the study of signs, any system of representations studied as a language
Resembles what it means, like a bike= a bike
Indeicates the presence of something else
associated to the meaning by a societal agreement of what it means
is used to connect what happens in between the panels (takes place in the gutter between two panels where the human imagination has to intervene).
contain linguistic elements of comics
the way of talking about the montage
Conveys passing of time by representing sound and speech; conveys the passing of time spatially; captures movement; vary in sizes
When panel runs off the end of the page
Shows motion in comics
illustrating a person by exaggerating certain physical features to mock them and play with stereotypes while also embodying their character as the artist sees them (Further specialized the visual language of narrative art)
Masking effect- having cartoony/simple characters in a realistic/detailed background
The reader identifies with the character (the less detail, the more we can identify with that character)
The works of both Herge and Tezuka give good examples of the masking effect
a reading of an artwork that focuses primarily on its form, rather than on its content or its context. Newgarden and Karasik's essay on Nancy is our example of a formalist reading
reading of an artwork that tries to situate the work in its historical, political or economic context and takes into consideration how and where it was read (reception + circulation). Ariel Dorfman's essay on Babar is an example of a historicist reading.
story told using non moving images; includes comic books and graphic novels, but not film or animation.
Static images are taken in all at once, don't tell stories. Allows the reader to collect the moments together and see the larger themes and values that appear over time
Stories are taken in over time (concrete order of events) allows the reader to understand the sequence of the actions
Two or more different stories are overlapping each other and there is no fixed sequential order among the different narrative events
Oral narrative art
Compress time to simultaneously express abstract relationships connoting cultural notions of power, spiritual order, and social influence.
Single-Frame narrative art
Often arrange the figures into smaller groups, creating what is called visual nuclei that help define distinct moments in the story.
Robe and ledger art:
Greater attention to natural detail (Ex: clothing, physiological gestures..)
Monoscenic Narrative Art
-Single event/image, no multiple characters, can be seen at once,needs context
-no repetition of characters or later scenes to suggest the passage of time
-Where more than one event is taking place through there is no repetition of characters or scenes.
Progressive Narrative Art
Person has to move to take in event, like a parade.
Panoramic Narrative Art
A scene depicting events happening at the same time
Synoptic Narrative Art
Repetition of characters within a scene.
Unfolds left to right
Multiple characters in the same scene
Allows for a quick reading of the entire frame
EXAMPLE: DANTE'S DECENT INTO HELL PICTURE
Continuous Narrative Art
Longer compositions that require the reader to view the work one section at a time though there is no visual frame that breaks up the overall composition.
EXAMPLE: ROMAN PILLAR
Multiple representations of characters
Contain clear visual nuclei that define units of action that make it possible to identify distinct narrative scenes, but the overall effect is of the unstoppable march of Roman armies toward victory.
Emphasize the unfolding continuity of the scenes.
Cyclic Narratives/Multiple-Frame Narrative Art
The action that occurs in one frame does not lead directly to the next as it would in a comic book, each frame represents an autonomous moment in the overall narrative much like a series of monoscenic pictures.
Depends on WORDS. (the pictures are combined with narrative details aka words)
EXAMPLE: 12 LABERS OF HURCULESE DEPICTED IN SEPERATE FRAMES
- certain striking characteristics are exaggerated in order to create a comic or grotesque effect.
-reveals some inner truth of subject.
An older variety of caricature that parodied social classes or occupations
These grotesque images differ from modern caricatures in that they do not identify a unique personality but rather try to reduce a human figure to a lowly type
(DA VINCI PRINTS)
signs could be ordered into deliberate sequence, formed around grammar (It was the first concept developed in human culture that established the idea that signs could be ordered into a deliberate sequence formed around grammar).
communicating flow of experience over time (Complex relationships between groups of images).
(MAN LOSES HAT, MAN CATCHES IT, IS ON HEAD AGAIN)
Variation among a sequence of images creates for the reader a wholly new idea not seen in any one picture
Images of words coming out from people's mouths.
journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration
Puffs worked as labels that represented self presentation function of character or image
Speech became tied to action
speech without the speaker
Reads as if it's moving because it is animated.
Passing as white (George Herriman)
Created motion captured photography (Used multiple cameras to produce an array of images)
Muybridge's two effects regarding time
Time Flowing: Temporal continuity (Helped break apart time prospective (Motion))
Time Fractured: Time could be fractured (Object is moving, but does not seem that way to us)
-notion of power comes from being an outsider
-Does good on a small scale community
-Plot is static and evades any development
-Was a timeless myth that was accepted because it happens in everyday life
-His powers were omnipotent
-Time in Superman: Between an impossible present or and ever-continuing present
Primary and secondary sources used to prove a theory. (Where humanists focus on it coming out of scholarly research)
materials directly related to a topic by time or participation (Ex: WWII would be a primary source of a project on WWII)
one that was created later by someone who did not experience first-hand or participate in the events or conditions you're researching (Ex: Scholarly articles and journals)
Joe Shuster/Jerry Siegel:
creators of superman (Originally created Superman as an immigrant)
It was a symbol.
Taking on the identity of Superhero
Tells something is about to take place for the reader
Signal transformation/ commitment to extra societal role, being advantages for marketing, branding, and copyright
Earlier years of comic books, when comics became an industry,lacked copyright ownership,volume/novelty more important than artistry/originality
This is when comic books became an industry
Literal Meaning: "drawings in a row"
Was the French word for comics
Had high quality and color
(Ex: Tintin and Asterix)
(McCloud) => Tin tin: making a cartoon seem more cartoonish through art
singular reading, only see it one way
reinvention of an image, changing the meaning
cheap, allowed for large audience, before they were called akabon ("red book")
'God of Manga', began his career with the "Red Books",Treasure island was first manga; popularized masking
Dramatic pictures. (More serious stories)
Drew and wrote their comics together. (They were read more quickly)
"clear line" no shadows, realistic background, normal characters
standardized comics to be more suitable for children.
Longer format comics.
the idea that things have a certain fixed essence -- an unchanging essential truth; the absolute truth
Varying ideas over time (opposite of essentialist)
The Bechdel test
test for gender bias in fictional works
Requires two female characters to have a conversation for a certain period of time
Without discussing a male character in their conversation
'Embodying an Archive' (Fun Home)
hand drawing the comic
McCloud's definition of a comic v. Saraceni's definition
McCloud's definition- "Juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence"
-The use of both words and pictures
-Texts organized into sequential units, graphically separated from each other
-An interaction between linguistic and pictorial elements
What comics ARE and what comics AREN'T
Comics are sequential
Cartoons are not comics!!
Are not in series (not sequential)
Cartoons are a style of drawing
Comics do not have to be funny and are similar to mediums such as film
If a comic is less detailed we tend to identify with the characters easier
Animation is not a comic
Visual and narrative
Comics are a medium/form
(Comic book guy who describes stuff using comics)
Comics are a relationship between words and pictures. They contain icons (pictures) and symbols (words).
They fall between icons and symbols
Icons look like what they are
Words are both icons and symbols
Comics have blend of words and pictures
Visual Language: pictures often read as symbols
Example: rough drawing of a church
Stars above head = pain (conventional meaning)
Words read as pictures
Hand-drawn nature of comics
Example: "democracy" word picture
McCloud's argument and masking effect
McCloud is the guy in Saracenti's comic describing comics
McCloud: More cartoony = more room for the reader to identify with the work.
Masking effect: the simpler and more "iconic" the character, the easier it is for the reader to identify with the character
How panels work:
Can convey time frames:
By lengthening or adding panels.
Through borderless panels (bleed) = timeless feeling.
Convey time in space (longer panels= more time)
Panel size (represents a progression of time):
Longer panel= longer time
Time frames (panels can convey speech in time)
Can create a sense of past and present
Closure = the reader assumes what happens between the panels
Newgarden and Karasik (Nancy)
Formalist approach to Nancy comics
Dissection of the formal aspects of the strip.
Does not look at historical, social, economic and political context
Historicist approach (social, political, economic) to Babar
Colonialism of Africa by France
'Easy-to-swallow' story of the incorporation of Africa into European empire (imperialism).
Very little violence/exploitation besides killing of Babar's mother
Fantasized version of history; it is 'sweetened up'
Does not talk about formal structure of Babar.
What makes graphic narratives unique?
Pace similar to reading
Does not have to be linear
Comics are the result of slow shifts in visual literacy.
Most important are literacy(signs in sequence formed around grammar, writing), printing, caricature, sequential action and sequence .
Usage of different sized paneling to suggest pacing; there is a causal connection
linking of moments (causally linked), uncertainty of time between scenes. (no moment-to-moment)
Pressed government to copyright protect printed images
Speech Bubbles used to have 'self presentation' function (here is what I'm doing in this image---labels)
The Yellow Kid:
Speech bubbles later tied sound to world of action (sound Images)
Heer uses both formalist and historicist approaches to interpret:
Krazy Kat (George Herriman )
Simple gag formula
Used polyglot (use of several languages) language
Characters often switch between white and black
Relates to his ideas of passing and being "between" races
Herrimans personal history: passing as a white man but marked as "colored" on birth certificate and mystery of his true origin (ambiguous identity)
Was biracial and it wasn't something people were aware of
Had to conceal it for education, work, etc.
The playfulness of Krazy Kat allows a space where different cultures could meet on equal ground → Reflective of Herriman's multi-ethnic identity.
Bukatman: Capturing motion
Little Nemo in Slumberland (Winsor McCay)
Played with perspective and size.
Muybridge (simply spatially organized) and Marey (displayed images all at once/superimposed in same frame) used photography to capture motion
Muybridge: Sequential Photography
Multiple spatially organized cameras and images
Time is discrete
Temporal continuity while time is also fractured
Pictures overlapped each other
At times, had a "ghostly" effect
Comics came from two media markets
Newspaper comic strips compiled in book form
Novels and myths:
Myths: we know the ending
Novels: story unfolds as we read
Superman: functions as a mythical character but falls under as a modern novel character/contemporary hero
Superman's powers = comparable to modern technology
If he really used all his powers, the story would end. Eco points out, why have such an all powerful guy if he is just going to do small scale stuff?
He is also limited to solving certain problems (less complex problems)
Wonder Woman: Intended to set up a standard among children and young people of strong, free, courageous womanhood
Relegated to domestic sphere after WWll
Feminism and struggle for women's rights
Wonder Woman was increasingly stripped of her powers, and was recast as a babysitter, a fashion model, and a movie star.
Characters were not all powerful
Politically radical against gov't during time of war
"Is Tintin racist?":
Tintin in the Congo: severe stereotypes of native Congolese (characters in black face with extremely exaggerated facial features)
Tintin in America: stereotyped Native Americans but sympathizes for their loss of land.
Hergé became more critical of European colonial attitudes after befriending a young Chinese art student in the 1930s
Tintin is a propaganda tie-in for Belgian colonization of the Congo
Hergé and the Masking technique: cartoon characters placed against a realistic background
But is it masking if they are stereotypes? Will it still allow for masking if a reader can't identify
Reactions and appropriations of Congolese
Readerly and writerly readings
Further exaggerated stereotypes in tintin and the congo
Humor is used to deconstruct Western notions of Africa
Humor challenges Western myths about life in Sub-Saharan Africa as well as Gabonese stereotypes about life in Europe
The Art of Charlie Chan Hock Chye
Uses fictional archives to recount Singapore's history
Creation of a comic's history in Singapore.
packing a suitcase (Maus), Spiegelman's father
Every panel is packed with images and words. (densely making use of the grammar and language of comics)
Throughout Maus he represents he complicated entwining of the past and the present by "packing" the tight spaces or panels
Intertwining of past and present:
Panels bleed into each other/overlap
Time is space
Hillary Chute: building a home (Fun Home), Bechdel's fathe
The comic as the house
Detailed reconstructions - Bechdel is reimagining the meticulous creation of the house by her father (she is able to tell her own story)
Only uses the color of the house wallpaper
Trying to tell her father's story from her perspective, along with instilling her own experiences.
Labyrinth analogy > what lies the center is not a monster, but a secret (similar to the mythological Minotaur and the story of Daedalus and Icarus)
Making loss present (Example: funeral; panel splitting right through her head)