AP Environmental Science: Chapters 17 & 19
Terms in this set (45)
any impaired body function with a characteristic set of symptoms.
diseases caused by infectious agents, known as pathogens.
diseases that slowly impair the functioning of a person's body over years or decades (heart disease, cancer)
diseases that rapidly impair the functioning of a person's body in a matter of days or weeks (Ebola hemorrhagic fever, etc.)
an occurrence of a pathogen causes a rapid increase in disease.
an occurrence of an epidemic that occurs over a large geographic region.
This historically important disease is caused by an infection from the bacterium Yersinia pestis that is carried by fleas. The fleas attach to rodents, which gives the fleas tremendous mobility, and can thus spread from these rodents to human populations via flea bites or handling of rodents. Those infected experience swollen glands, black skin spots, and extreme pain.
This historically important disease (which is still prevalent today in areas of the developing world) is caused by an infection from any one of several species of protists in the genus, Plasmodium. The parasite spends part of its life inside a mosquito and another part of its life inside a human. Infections cause recurring flulike symptoms.
This historically important disease is caused by a bacterium (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and is highly contagious. As it primarily affects the lungs, it is spread when a person coughs and expels the bacterium into the air, where it can remain for several hours.
Originating in the wild Chimpanzee populations of Cameroon, _____ (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) causes can cause ______ (Acquired Immunodeficiency Virus), a disease that causes the immune systems of humans to weaken, causing them to become more susceptible to viruses like pneumonia, cancer, etc. The virus is spread through sexual contact, or, very frequently, through the sharing of dirty needles among drug users.
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
Discovered in Congo near the Ebola River, this disease has a particularly high mortality rate, and deaths typically occur shortly after becoming infected. Because the virus kills its hosts so quickly, its transmissibility is quite low. The source of this disease is still unknown and there is no cure.
Mad Cow Disease
This neurological disease occurs in cattle (causing the breakdown of the nervous system and death), but has been known to be transmitted to humans who consume the meat/nervous system of infected cattle. Prions, which are normally regularly functioning proteins in the brains of cattle, can mutate into deadly proteins that act as pathogens and cause mad cow disease. The virus can only be spread through the consumption of the nervous system of infected cattle, but many cows were originally fed mixtures that contained ground-up cattle. Thus, as large numbers of cattle were fed similarly, their meat could infect any human who consumed it.
Caused by the H1N1 virus, this disease, at one point known as "Spanish Flu," killed up to 100 million people in 1918. Similar avian flu strains can be transmitted to humans via contact with infected birds.
West Nile Virus
this disease lives in hundreds of species of birds and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Though fatal to some, most species of birds do not die from the infection, creating risk for transmittance to humans. In humans, the virus causes inflammation of the brain and sometimes death.
these harmful chemicals disrupt the nervous systems of animals. (lead, mercury, etc.)
these harmful chemicals cause cancer by damaging cells in a way that leads to uncontrolled cell growth either by interfering with normal cellular metabolic processes or damaging the genetic material of the cell.
these harmful chemicals (can be carcinogens) cause damage to the genetic material of a cell. (asbestos, radon, formaldehyde, etc.)
these harmful chemicals interfere with normal fetal or embryonic development. One of the most famous ________ is Thalidomide, which was prescribed to pregnant women as a curative for morning sickness in the 1950s and '60s.
these are chemicals that cause allergic reactions. Though they are not pathogens, they are capable of causing abnormally high responses from one's immune system; these can occasionally result in death.
these are harmful chemicals that interfere with the normal functioning of hormones in an animal's body.
these expose animals or plants to different amounts of a chemical and then observe a variety of possible responses, including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction. Chemical amounts are measured as the "concentration" (amount in air, water, food), and "dose" (the amount of the chemical actually ingested or absorbed).
These are often dose-response studies, and are so named because of their short duration (1-4 days).
This is the lethal dose that kills 50% of a given test population. ______s are useful, as they provide a comparative measure for other substances or experiments.
The dose at which an effect can be detected.
The dose at which harmful, yet nonlethal, effects are displayed by 50% of a test population.
These are effects induced by teratogens, carcinogens, and neurotoxins that are not acutely lethal.
These are studies that are conducted over a much longer period of time than acute studies.
the field of science that is concerned with the causes of illness and disease in human and wildlife populations.
these are studies that monitor people who have been exposed to a chemical some time in the past.
these are studies that monitor people who might become exposed to harmful chemicals in the future.
these are reactions in which two risks together cause more harm than one would expect based on their individual risks.
Routes of Exposure
the ways in which an individual might come into contact with a chemical.
how well a chemical can dissolve in a liquid
this is the increase in chemical concentration in animal tissues as the chemical moves up the food chain (a result of step's animal representative's bioaccumulation)
this characteristic of a chemical refers to how long the chemical remains in the environment (half life, etc.)
anything in the environment that can potentially cause harm.
change that occurs in the chemical, biological, and physical properties of the planet.
Global Climate Change
change in the climate of the Earth--the average weather that occurs in an area over a period of years or decades.
refers to the warming of the oceans, landmasses, and atmosphere of Earth.
Greenhouse Warming Potential
this measurement estimates how much a molecule of any compound can contribute to global warming over a period of 100 years relative to a molecule of CO2.
Natural Sources of Greenhouse Gases
Volcanic eruptions (release CO2 and ash), decomposition (releases methane when it occurs in anaerobic conditions), denitrification (releases nitrous oxide), hydrologic cycle (releases water vapor, the most contributive compound to global warming that occurs naturally), etc.
Anthropogenic Sources of Greenhouse Gases
Burning of fossil fuels (CO2), agricultural practices (methane released from flooded fields/paddies and livestock, excess nitrate in soil releases nitrous oxide), deforestation (contributes to atmospheric CO2), landfills, CFCs and HCFCs.
Global Warming Consequences for Environment
Glacial melting, permafrost melting, sea levels rising, heat waves occurring more frequently, fewer cold spells/shorter winters, changes in precipitation, increase in tropical storm intensity, changes in ocean currents (thermohaline circulation).
Global Warming Consequences for Living Creatures
earlier ripening/blooming of fruits/plants, temperature changes requiring relocation made impossible by habitat fragmentation, potential flooding of areas widely inhabited by humans without the financial assets to relocate effectively.
under this 1997 agreement, global emissions of greenhouse gases from all industrialized countries were to have been reduced to 5.2% below their 1990 levels by 2012. The agreement also mandated that the U.S. reduce its emissions by 7% and the E.U reduce theirs by 8%.