311 terms

ILTS 155: Learning Behavior Specialist Exam


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15-20% of students aged 6-17 recieve special education services; these students are very much like their peers, the only difference being that they have an intellectual, emotional, behavioral or physical deficit that interferes with their ability to learn effectively
Physical Impairments
can develop during pregnancy, birth or infancy
Can develop later in life from an injury or disease
Often affects the cariopulmonary and musculoskeltal systems
lack of phsyical stamina. Poor endurance, chronic illness
Deficient or impeded motor skills
Physical limitations due to difficulties moving normally. Limited mobility and ability to explore the environment. Limited self-care abilities. Progressive weakening and degeneration of muscles
Frequent speech and language effects
potential echolalia
communication may be prevented
psychological or emotional problems with a physical disability
may display maladaptive behavior, may require social adjustments, may necessitate long-term medical treatment, may experience embarrasing side effects from certain diseases or treatment
May exhibit erratic or poor attendance patterns
Children's physical growth and development affect their learning
Ability to sit and attend
Need for activity
Relationship between their physical abilities and self-esteem
The degree to which physical involvement in an acitivity affects learning
Emotional Disability
A child is considered emotionally disturbed if they exhibit one or more of the following behaviors over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects their educational performance
Emotional Disability behaviors:
-Inability to learn that cannot be explained by other intellectual or health factors
-Inability to maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships
-Inappropriate behaviors
-General pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression
-Physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems
--> schizo children covered under this definition
--> social maladjustment must be accompanied by one other condition to satisfy definition of SED
Diagnosing ED: DSM V
Axis I= Principal Psychiatric Diagnosis (overanxious disorder)
Axis II= Developmental Problems (mental retardation)
Axis III= Physical/medical disorders (asthma)
Axis IV= psychosocial stressors (divorce)
Axis V= Level of Functioning (Global assessment functioning)
Assessing behavior: Externalized
aggressive behaviors expressed outwardly towards others
-Hyperactive impulsive and easily distracted (e.g. hitting, cursing, cruelty to animals)
Tendency to withdraw inward to the self (depression, phobias, elective mutism)
Degree of disturbance
Mild= not destructive, aware of behavior, usually able to relate to other
Moderate= ocassionally destructive, occassionaly aware of behavior, usually unable to relate to others
Severe= usually destructive, usually not aware of behavior, unable to relate to others
Cognitive Development Progression: Ages 6-12
Begin to develop ability to think in CONCRETE WAYS
-what should be done in the presence of the object and events that are to be used
-- Combine (addition)
-- Separate (subtract or divide)
--Order (abc or sort)
-- Transform (change 25 pennies into a quarter)
Ages 12-18
-Begin to develop more complex thinking skills such as abstract thinking, ability to reason from known principles, ability to consider many POV, ability to think about the process of thinking
Early Adolescence
Begins to demonstrate use of formal logical operations in HW. Begins to question authority and societal standards, begins to form and verbalize opinions on topics usually related to their own life (parental rules should change)
Middle Adolescence
Questions and analyzes more extensively
Begins to develop own identity, forming personal code of ethics, thinking long term to form plans and goals
Uses systematic thinking that begins to influence relationships
Late adolescence
Develops idealistic views on specific topics
Debates and develops intolerance of opposing views
Begins to focus on making career decisions and emerging role in adult society
Thinks more globally instead of egocentrically
How to encourage healthy cognitive development
-Include adolescents in discussions on a variety of topics and issues
-Encourage them to share ideas and thoughts
-Encourage them to think independently and develop their own ideas
-Encourage them to set goals and think about future
-Offer praise for good decisions and assist in re-evaluation of poor decisions
Communication Competence
an interaction between cognitive competence, social knowledge and language competence. communication problems from deficits in any of these areas:
Language Theory
Number of morphemes per 100 sentences= Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)
Stage L of Language theory
MLU= 1.5-2
Developmental Features= 14 basic morphemes
ex: in, on, articles, possessives
Stage LI
MLU= 2-2.5
Developmental Features= beginning of pronoun use and auxillary verbs
Stage LII
MLU= 2.5-3
Developmental Features= beginning of questions and negative statements
Stage IV
MLU= 3-3.5
Developmental Features= use of complex (embedded) sentences
Stage V
MLU= 3.5-4
Developmental Features= Use of compound sentences
Language Components
child progresses through developmental stages through each component
system of rules about sounds and sound combinations for a language
by themselves do NOT have a meaning, they must be combined with other phonemes
Phonological problems
Developmental delays in acquiring consonants
Reception problem= misinterpreting words when a new constant is substituted
smallest unit of language that convey a meaning
Include root words (dog) and affixes (ing)
Problems with morphemes
-failure to use inflectional endings in their words
-inconsistent use of certain morphemes
-delays in learning certain morphemes such irregular past tense
Grammar; how words and morphemes are correctly combined
Six Stages
Stage 1 of syntax
learning the semantic system
Stage 2
simple sentences contain subject and predicate
Stage 3
question words, word order changed to ask questions, uses AND to combine simple sentences, begins to embed words in basic sentences
Stage 4
Complete sentences and awareness of appropriate semantic functions of words and differences within same grammatical class
Stage 5
Learns complex sentences and ones the imply commands, requests, and promises
Problems with syntax
-using sentences that lack length or complexity typical for that age
-difficulties understanding or creating complex and embedded sentences
language content (objects, actions, relations between objects)
Stage 1 of semantics
children learning meaning as they learn first word- sentences are one-worded but vary according to the context
ex: "doogie" can mean "this is my dog" or "the dog is barking"
stage 2
Progresses to 2-worded sentences about concrete actions; as more words are learned sentences get longer
stage 3
8 on
word meaning relate directly to experiences, operations, and processes; vocabulary defined by child's experiences not the adult's at about age 12 child reaches adult semantic level
Problems with semantics
-limited vocabulary
-inability to understand figurative language (only interprets literally)
-Failure to perceive multiple meanings words; when a meaning changes due to context there is incomplete understanding of what is read
-Difficulty understanding linguistic concepts, verbal analogies, and logical relationships; possessives, spatial, temporal
-Misuse of transitional words such as although and regardless
speakers intent; used to influence actions or attitudes of others
Communicative Competence
depends on how well one understands that language rules but also social rules of communication such as taking turns or using correct tone
Problems with pragmatics
-Failure to respond correctly to indirect request after 8 yrs
-Trouble reading cues that listener doesnt understand
-Interruptions or monopolizing conversation
-Immature speech
-Difficulty staying on topic
Problems with Language by grade level: Pre-K and Kindergarten
-Immature speech
-Cant follow certain direction or answer certain questions correctly
-Word retrieval problems
-Difficulty differentiating between sounds and the letter associated with it
-Participate in non-play
Elementary language problems
-continuing problems with sound discrimination
-difficulty with logical relationships: temporal or spatial
-side steps word retrieval problems by using fillers or descriptors
-Slow speech
-Inability to process words' multiple meanings
-Pragmatic problems show up in social situations
Secondary language problems
-Lacks ability to use or understand higher-level syntax, semantics and pragmatics
-Receptive or expressive language delays impair ability to learn effectively
-Inability to organize or categorize information
Communication Theory
how we transfer information and share it with another person
Language theories of communication
-Behaviorism= language is a result of situations surrounding the child
-Nativism= language is determined at birth and is an innate characteristic
-Interactionist= language is a result of predetermined skills and environment
Problems caused by language deficits
-Convey meanings or draw conclusions
Ways to communicate
-Sign language
-use of technological aids
-Picture symbol system
Gross motor skills
large muscle movements
Fine motor skills
small muscle movements
Typical Development of motor skills: Birth-6 weeks
movement of arms and legs. begin to lift head, sudden jerking movements
6 weeks-3 months
stabalize head on own, muscle control begins
3 months-6months
begins support own weight on arms, begins to roll over, can sit up on own or when propped with support
6 months-9 months
sits alone, scoots, stands with support, rolls over, grasps things, tries to hold things
9 months-1 year
crawling, walking, pushing up to stand, rudimentary picking up
walking, kicking, and rolling balls, learning stairs, using utensils, putting things in containers, using crayons, stacking blocks, tries to take things apart
running, jumping with two feet, using stairs alone, short balancing on one foot, scribbling, beginning to use scissors, stringing beads
throwing, catching, hopping, skipping, climbing, learning to bike, pouring, buttoning, zipping, correct way of holding pen
pushing swings, jumping rope, swimming, visual motor coordination evolves, long periods of balancing, drawing shapes letters and words, drawing recognizable pictures, tying shows
**whatever is not this is considered atypical
Potential Causes of Disability
-Problems in fetal brain dev
-Genetic: learning disabilites in family, suggesting there is some genetic link
-Environment: ex: less use of langauge by parents, greater likelihood of langauge disability
-Substance Abuse: low birth weight correlated with learning disorders, FAS and drug use can cause low wieght as well as hyperactivity and physical defects
-Complications during pregnancy or delivery
-Toxins in environment: cadmium, lead and radiation
Emotional Disturbance and Behavioral Disorder
-lower academic performance
-social skill deficits
-aggressive behaviors
-Delinquincy: legal term describing truancy and actions that would be criminal if they were committed by adults
-Withdrawn Behaviors: can manifest as childish behaviors as well as isolationist; preferring to play with younger children, fake sick, daydreaming, clinging to teachers
-Schizo and Psychotic behaviors: hallucinations, delusions, incoherent thoughts (onset 15-45; the younger the more severe)
Gender and EDBD
boys= identified as having more emotional and behavioral problems: ADD/HD, autism, childhood psychosis, problems under control (aggression), mental retardation and language/learning disabilities
girls= problems with over control (phobias, withdrawal)
Age and EDBD (emotional distubance and behavioral disorder)
entering adolescence, girls experience rate of affective disorders (bulimia, depression, anorexia, anxiety) 2X higher than boys
Family characteristics and EDBD
-lack of supervision
-overly punitive and/or lack of discipline
-lack of parental interest
-negative role models
-lack of proper healthcare and/or nutrition
Mild learning and behavioral disabilities
-Lack of interest in school
-Prefer concrete over abstract lessons
-Weak listening skills
-Limited verbal and/or writing skills
-REspond better to active over passive learning tasks
-Have talents often overlooked by teacher
-Prefer to receive special help in regular class
-higher drop out rate than regular ed students
-Achieve in accordance to teacher expectations
-Require modification in instruction and are easily distracted
Learning Disability
-Perceptual Difficulties: visual and auditory
-Perceptual motor impairments: trouble integrating the two systems
-Disorders of memory and thinking: trouble problem solving, poor awareness of metacognitive skills
-Academic problems in reading, math, writing or spelling
Intellectual Disability
-IQ 70 or below
-Limited cognitive ability: delays in academics, particuarly language
-Deficits in memory related to poor initial perception or inability to apply stored info to relevant situations
-Impaired formulation of learning strategies
-Difficulty in attending to relevant aspects of stimuli: slow reaction times
-Apparent sensory deficit
-Severe affect isolation: does not engage in reciprocal social interaction (hugs, smiles)
-Self stimulation: repeated, ritualistic behavior and actions
-Tantrums and self-injurous behavior
-Echolalia: parrot talk- repeating what they hear
-Severe deficits in behavior and self-care skills
Students with disabiites may demonstrate...
-Difficulty with social skills
-Diccultuy in academic skills
-Difficulty with independence or self-help skills
*** while they experience similar difficulties across all disabilites, the causes are very different
Who is a student with a disability
a student with a disability who has not reached 21 by September 1st is an entitiled to attend public schools who, becuase of mental, emotional, or physical reason, has been identified as having a disability and who requires special services and programs approved by the department
developmental disability affecting verbal/nonverbal communication and social interaction
-usually evident before 3
-sensory deficits, reptitive movement language, resistance to change
severe enough to impair processing of linguistic input
concomitant hearing and visual impairments that cause severe communication, developmental and educational deficits
Emotional Disturbance
Experience of one or more of the following over a long period of time to a marked degree that adversely affects educational performance:
-Inability to learn that cannot be explained by mental or sensory deficits
-Inability to build relationships
-Pervasive unhappiness or depression
-Inappropriate behaviors
-Tendencey to develop fears or physcial symptoms assocaited with school or personal problems
***term includes schizo but not social maladjustment unless accompanied by another disturbance
Hearing impairment
permanent or fluctuating
Learning Disability
-Disorder in one or more basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language (verbal/non)
-Maifests itself as imperfect ability to listen, speak, read, write, spell, do math
-Includes: perceptual deficits, brain injuries, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, developmental aphasia
Mental Retardation
significantly sub-average IQ and maladaptive behaviors
Multiple Disabilites
Concomitant impairments that cuases such educational impairments that they cannot be accomodated in a special ed program solely for one of them
Orthopedic Impairment
includes impairments caused by congential anamoly, disease, and other anomalies (amputations, burns)
Other health impairment
limited strength, vitality, or alterness, including heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that is cuased by chronic or acute health probems including: diabetes, asthma, leukemia, tourettes
Speech or language impairment
communication disorder
stuttering, impaired articulation, language or voice impairment
Traumatic Brain Injury
injury caused by external physical force or certain medical conditions (stroke or tumor)
Includes open or closed injuries resulting in mild, moderate or severe impairments to one or more areas including: cognition, language, memory, attention, perceptual and motor abilities
Basic Functions of the human body
-students must be able to attend to these before any academic issues can be addressed
-movement, reproduction, growth, responsiveness, metabolism, respiration, digestion, excretion, differentiation, organization
Other difficulties with sensory disabilites
-Unable to hear, difficulties acquiring normal language
-unable to see, difficulty understanding the concept of color
-This does not mean they have cognitive deficit-only dificulties
-More important to understand and repsect individual beliefs and culture of the family
(remain impartial and keep professional distance)
Sources that provide inofrmation
Websites-- for medical questions and legal questions.
-School psychologists
How disabilities affect learning: Language Disorders
-Difficulty understanding language, expressing themselves or communicating
-Language is the main method of teaching
Processing Deficits
Affect how students take the information presented and transfer it into something meaningful to them
-Causes misconceptions
Cognitive disorders
affect the ability to acquire new information
Behavorial/emotional/social disorders
-These affect learning when inability to meet more basic needs inhibits students meeting higher level needs (learning)
-Students must learn to control behaviors and emotions before they can take in more academic concepts
Physical or Sensory Disabilities
-Physically disabled students may need accommodations to physically access the information
-Learning needs to be maneuvered to allow them equal opportunity
How disabilities affect behavior: Language Disorders
-Struggling to express oneself or understand others can be frustrating
-An outlet for this frustration may become acting out or misbehaving
Processing Deficits affect behavior
When a student has difficulty processing a situation, they may read it incorrectly and therefore act inappropriately
Behaviors and Cognitive disorders
-Ability to understand events and situations are impaired so they have difficulty forming appropriate behavioral responses
-May not have adequate understanding of what is socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior in certain situations
Behavior/emotional/social disorders effecting behaviors
its in the name- have difficulty displaying socially acceptable behavior
Physical/Sensory Disabilities affecting behavior
-Deal with a lot of frustration on a daily basis trying to particpate in society
-Can manifest itself in anger or misbehavior
can do everything from cause drowsiness and poor concetration to hyperactivity
-might not be the student, might be the side effects
Antidepressants: SSRI's
blocks certain serotonin receptors
can change brain chemistry and cause dry mouth, insomnia, sweating and nausea
For depression and OCD
-Similar side effects to SSRI's, including sedation, tremor, light sensitivity and mood swings
-Life-threatening and unpleasant reactions with many OTC drugs AND food
-Can cause agitation, restlesness, aggressive behavior, dizziness, insomnia, headache and tremor
Anti-anxiety meds (tranquilizers)
potential for abuse/addiction
sedating effects, including blurred vision, confusion, sleepiness and tremors
Seizure Meds
-often require one or more daily doses- if these are missed it can seriously deter student's ability to control seizures
-Learning: need all information presented in a manner with which their remaining senses can be utilized
-Behavior: school settings are designed and set up to use these two senses so the student may feel isolated
-cannot understand others or express themselves AND have basic needs not being met which deter higher level needs from occuring
The role of assessment
-only through assessment that growth can be determined
-critical to showing improvement at the individual student level as well as the broader school level
Eval process
-student completes an assessment
-data is gathered
-data is interpreted
-appropraite instructional program for student is determined
-implement teaching program
-monitor students' progress regularly
-repeat assessments as need to ensure state and national standards are being met
Response to intervention (RtI)
-Assessments are used to make qualification determinations
-individual plan is developed specifc for the students and then implemented
-Progress charted and kept track of over a period of time
-If despite adequate intervention the student continues to make inadequate progress, the child would become eligible for services
Terminology used in assessment: Baseline
-establishing a baseline by collecting data about a target behavior or skill before certain interventions are implemented
--allows instructor to see if interventions were successful
Criterion-Referenced Test
-a test in which individual performance is measured against mastery of curriculum criteria rather than performance of other students
-useful for identifying goals for IEPs and lesson plans
Curriculum0based assessment
-assessment of an individual's performance on objectives of a curriculum
--measured in terms of what was mastered
-Duration recording= measuring the length of time a behavior (tantrum, crying) lasts
Error analysis
categorizing an individual's mistake on an assessment by type
--e.g. miscues, substituting words, omitted words
Event recording
the number of times a target behavior occurs during an observation
Formal Assessment
standardized tests that have specific procedures for administration, norming, scoring and interpretation
--Intelligence and achievement tests
the number of times a behavior (hitting, tantrums) occurs in a time interval
Frequency Distribution
-plotting scores recieved on a test and tallying how many individuals received those scores
--how did the group perform
--what were the extreme scores
--how does the distribution compare to the mean
Informal Assessment
non standardized tests
-e.g. criterion test or teacher-prepared test
no rigid rules or procedures for administering or scoring
the degree of a behavior as measured by its frequency and duration
interval recording
technique involving breaking down observation into equal number of time intervals
e.g. 10 second intervals over a 5 min observation
--at the end of each interval observer records presence or absence of behavior and can calculate a percentage by dividing the total number of intervals during which the behavior occurred by the total number of intervals
--good method for high frequency or long duration behaviors so observer doesnt have to constantly monitor but can still gather data
length of time that elapses between the presentation of a stimulus and a response
e.g. teacher's question and student's answer
average; sum of scores divided by total number of scores
middle score; 50% above and 50% below
score of highest frequency
Momentary time sampling
technique for measuring behaviors of a group or several behaviors from an individual
--brief time samples that can be conducted at brief or variable intervals
--increased realiability= student doesnt know when sample is being taken
Multiple baseline design
used to establish whether or not an intervention was effective or if it accounted for changes of target behavior
--baseline data gathered followed by intervention data
--to gather second baseline, intervention is then removed and data is recollected
--intervention then reestablished and data is collected again
--can be used in single subject experiements where: same behavior is measure for several students at same time, several behaviors are being monitered for one student, several settings are being observed to see if behaviors occur across them
Norm-referenced test
individual performance is compared to the group that was used to calculate performance standards in a standardized test
Operational Definition
description of a behavior and its measurable components
--must be specific or you risk reliability
specifying and describing the target behavior for change in measurable and precise terms
--makes it possible to accurately measure the behavior
plotting individual behavioral data on a graph
frequency of a behavior over a specific time period
raw score
number of correct responses on a test before it has been converted to a standard score
--not meaningful because they have no basis of comparison to the performance of other individuals
consistency of a test over time
--Test-retest method: test is re-administered to the same group/indv after a period of time and results are compared
--Alternate form= uses equivalent form to measure same skills
--Interrater= the degree of agreement between two or more individuals observing the same behavior or same tests
--Internal reliabitliy= determined by statistical procedures or by correlating one-half of test with other half of test
standard deviation
statistical measure of variability of scores; more clustered around the mean, the smaller deviation
Standard error of measurment
measures the amount of possible error in a score
Standard score
a score derived from a set mean (usually 100) and a standard deviation
breaking an academic or behavioral task down into its sequence of steps
--necessary when creating a criterion-referenced test and performing error analysis
The degree to which a test measures what it claims to measure;several types:
--content- examining the question of whether the types of task measure the skill the test claims to
--Criterion referenced- comparing test results with a valid criterion
--Predictive- how well a test will relate to future criterion level (a test administered to first graders ability predict that students score year later)
--Concurrent- how well the test relates to a criterion measure given at the same time
--Construct Validity- ability of a test to measure a theoretical construct such as intelligence (factor analysis or correlation studies with other instruments that measure the same construct can determine this)
Identify Students learning characteristics
Learning style inventories, indexes, and observation tools allow teachers and students to better determine the learning style best suited for the student as an individual
Modes of communication
Allows teachers to understand which modes of communication a student is demonstrating or lacking in:
--Interpersonal- responses and reactions
--presentational- sharing
Progress Monitoring
Allows teachers to make informed decisions about instructional changes, adaptations and modifications
Assessment across all curriculum: Academic
district or state level assessment measuring progress in reading, writing, math,science etc
-will need to look at available data and determine whether further assessment is required
assessing Social skills
-observational data or other checklists or inventories may be used to gather the info of the skills needed to be developed
-almost always informal to be developed
Typically informal
-situations similar to work situations are created and students are asked to act at they would were it the real thing
-observations, aptitude tests, interest inventories used as well
assessments if Unable to speak...
-May require another method with which to respond to oral items
--augmentative communication device (pictures used to represent typical words used in a sentence and students point to appropriate answer)
-there are a lot of tests of nonverbal intelligence who have difficulties or are unable to complete a more typical test
-Interpreters= need to understand that translation must be verbatim
-Utilizing the knowledge of a speech and language pathologist to find accurate and reliable methods for assessing students with communication difficulties and reliable methods for assessing students with communication difficulties
Formal assessments
standardized criterion, norm-refrenced instruments, and commercially prepared inventories which are developmentally appropriate for students across the disability spectrum
--Criterion Referenced: compare student's performance to previously established criterion instead of other students from a normative sample
-Norm-refrenced: use normative data for scoring which include performance norms by age, gender or ethnic group
-Allow teachers to make comparison in regard to all students
--help when checking if student is making necessary progress
-HOWEVER, many only provide a snippet of data which is not representational of true performance
Informal Assessments
non standardized instruments such as checklists, developmental rating scales, observations, error analysis, interviews, teacher reports and performance-based assessments
--rely upon knowledge and judgment of the professional
--easy design and administration
--grants teacher useful info about students strengths and weaknesses
--HOWEVER, difficult to report progress in a meaningful manner when only using informal assessments
--> they are somewhat objective and generally widely open to interpretation
Some can combine formal and criterion
Observation: may incorporate structured observation instruments as well as informal observation instruments
-using formal rating scale while simultaneously using professional judgment
Practitioner should judge the situation and select the most appropriate assessment tool for the population
many tools can be used across disabilities but some are more telling than others
curriculum based, multiple baseline design, norm referenced test, momentary time sampling
Adaptive behavior
knowledge, behavior and daily living skills required to function effectively and independent
Skills of adaptive behacior
include communication and social skills, daily living skills, personal care skills, and other skills needed to function in a variety of settings
-a measure of this is a specific comprehensive assessment of indpendent living skills
--assess skills on an indv relative to the skills of same age peers
--significant in eligibility consideration for students with mental handicaps and in the development of effective educational interventions
--important for pinpointing specific skills that need to be taught
--should take into account students' behavior and skill in a variety of different settings
Methods for measurement
-strucutred interview with teachers and parents
-a person trained to administer the rating scale (school counselor) conducts interview
-rating scale that assesses students' skills and abilities in various settings
-most valid when people being interviewed are familiar with the students knowledge and skills
-Analyzing students records from school
-watching student in certain circumstances
-testing skills by giving them certain tasks
Rating scales affress:
-self care: skills in toilet eating dressing
-home living: clothing care, food prep
-social: getting along well with others
-community use: transportation, shopping
-self direction: following a sched, avoiding danger
-healthy and safety
-functional academics
-leisure: using time when not working, age appropriate activites
-Work: employment skills related to effort and social behavior
Types of assessments available to teachers: Anecdotal Reports
notes recorded by teacher concerning an area of interest with a particular student
-Focus on observable behavior and use descriptive language
-should not include assumptions regarding effective areas
-compiled over period of several days or week
LIMITATIONS: bias toward the student based on behavioral notes logged by previous teacher
Rating scales and checklists
-self apprasial instruments completed by student OR observational based instruments completed by teacher
-focus on behavior or effective area
-helpful but NOT subjective
Portfolio Assessment
-typically contains samples of work collected over extended period
-nature of the subject, age of student, and scope of portfolio all contribute to analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating the contents
-studnets and teachers typically collaborate on what goes into the portfolio
-Allows a unique perspective on the progress
--qualitative changes are apparent here whereas changes can be difficult to see with strictly quantitative records of a grade book
-oral questioning by teacher
-collects information about the degree of student learning and potential sources of confusion
Additional Types of Tests
-Standardized achievment tests
-assessment material packaged with curricular materials
-teacher made assessment instruments
----pencial and paper test
----oral test
----product evaluations
----performance tests
----effective measures
-avenues for assessing student acheivment
----what the learner says, what the learner does, what the learner writes
Purpose of assessment
-diagnostic assessments determine indv weakness and strength in certain areas
-readiness assessments measure prereqs knowledge and skills
-interest and attitude assessments identify topics of high interest or areas where students need more motivation
-eval assessments are generally programmed or teacher focused; evaluating the teacher
-Placement assessments help group students or determine appropriate beginning levels in leveled materials
-Formative assessment provide on-going feedback of students progress and success of methods and material
-Summative assessments define student accomplishments with the intent to determine the degree of student mastery or learning that has taken place
Six purpose of assessment
-evaluate and improve student learning
-to identify student strengths and weaknesses
-assess the effectiveness of instructional strategy
-evaluate and improve program effectiveness
-evaluate and imporive teacher effectiveness
-communicate to parents their children's progress
If instructional modifications in a regular classroom are not successful, a student sill undergo multidisciplinary evaluation including
-norm and criterion refrenced tests (IQ and diagnostic)
-curriculum based assessment
-systematic teacher observations
-samples of student work
-parent interviews
-to determine elegibility for sped services and to identify students strength and weaknesses in order to plan IEP
Wording of federal law is explicit
-Evaluations must be done in a specific manner
-Due process procedures to prevent bias discrimination
--> test the child int heir native or primary language unless it is not feasible to do so
--> use the eval procedures selected and administered to prevent cultural or ethnic discrimination
--> use assessment tools validated for the pruposes of which they are being used
--> assessment must be conducted by a multidisciplinary team utilizing several pieves of information to formulate a placement decision
Legal: Parental involvement must occur in the development of their childs plan
-parents must be notified before initial eval or any change in placement by written notice in their primary language describing the proposed action, the reasons for it and available educational opportunities
-parents must consent, in writing, before the cihld is initially evaluated
-parents may request an independent educational evaluation if they fell the schools eval is inappropriate
-parents may request an eval at public expense if a due process hearing decision is that the public's agency eval was inappropriate
-parents may participate on the committee that considers the eval, placement, and programming of the student
Laws for student and process
-All students should have a current hearing and vision screening on file
(determine sensory acuity, determine if problems are due to vision and/or hearing disability)
-All parts of the process are confidential to parties outside those serving the student
-RtI monitors the progress of the student over time and using that progress, or lack there of, student qualification status is determined
Summary of a comprehensive diagnostic interview by a qualified evaluator
Should use professional judgment regarding which areas are relevant to determining eligibility
-Developmental history, relevant medical history (absence of medical basis for symptoms), academic history (result of standardized scores), reports of classroom performance, relevant family history (primary language and current english fluency), relevant psychosocial history, discussion of dual-diagnosis, alternative co-existing mood, behavioral, neurological and/or personality disorders, relevant medication, exploration of alternatives that may mimic a learning disability

Allows evaluator to rule out alternative explanations for academic problems (poor education, poor motivation or study habits, language barriers
-Combination of candidate self-report interviews from family and others, and historical documentation (transcripts, standardized scores) are recommended
-those involved (parents, co-collaborators) must be kept in the loop
Identifying students educational priorities
parents, general education teacher, paras, doctors, and others are helpful in gathering info
Ways of gathering info
Interviews: person or paper
Questionnaires: open ended or rating scales
Conference/meeting: with parents permission
• Stay current in reading procedures for modifying formal nationally standardized, state, and local assessments
only use allowable accomodations, all modifications should be included in student's IEP and reviewed at least annually
Continually assess a student's accessibility to and progress through the general education curriculum
The goal is to return the student to regular services
-stay informed regarding the general curriculum and the potential accomodations that could be made for the student
--analyze it for areas where student could be successful without support from SPED
--work out manageable plan for student to have this access
-look at areas that may require simple accomodations/modifications. E.g. difficulty reading but understands concepts in science class--> text on tape, pair student with stronger reader for assignments
--some kids may have difficulty participating in academic portions of general curriculum but not the less academic portion- inclusion in these subjects should be considered whenever possible (music or art)
Remembering confounding effects
Anything that may have impacted results of the assessment should be recorded or taken into consideration when interpreting the results
-lack of appropriate instruction
-compounding disabilities --> is there really a learning disability or does the student simply have a hearing disability
-cultural differences
-assessment conducted in students native language
procedures and strategies for assessing the educational strengths and needs of students with disabilities for the purpose of designing and evaluating instruction
do you have the knowledge of interpreting and applying formal and informal assessment instruments?
Formal assessments
results are given in derived scores, comparing raw score to performance of a specified group
--age and grade equivalents: developmental scores- convert students raw score into an average performance of a particular age or grade
Age Equivalents
expressed in year and months (e.g. 9-3)
-mean calculated for all individuals who took the test to standardize this
---> if the mean/median of correct responses for 9-3 was 80 then a student scoring 80 would be given the age equivalent to 9-3
Grade equivalents
written as years and tenths of years (e.g. 6.2 is 6 grade and two month)
-calculated on average performance of the group
---> criticized for use to measure gains in academic achievement and identify exceptional students
Quartiles, deciles and percentiles
indicate percentage of scores that fall below student's raw score
-Quartiles divide into fourths (person scores in the 3rd quartile= 75% of scores were below theirs)
-Deciles divide into tenths (persons score is in the 7th decile= 70% of groups scores fell below)
-Percentiles are most common (45th percentile= scored better than 45%)
Standard scores
raw scored with the same mean (average) and standard deviation
-68% will fall between one standard deviation above/below
-96% will fall between two standard deviations above/below
most common standard scores are t-scores, z-scores, stanines, and scaled scores
-allow for direct comparisons of raw scores from different people
Criterion Referenced and curriculum-based assessments
-Interpreted on basis of performance on objectives being measured
-may be commercially-prepared or teacher-made
-can be designed for a particular curriculum or scope and sequence
-made by selecting objective, analyzing those objectives, and selecting measures to test the skills necessary to complete them
-Useful for gaining insight into types of error patterns students make
==> can be used to writing IEP and decide what to teach because performance is not compared to others
Norm-Refrenced assessments
-used to classify students into groups based on ability levels
-often used to categorize AP, honors, regular and remedial
---> this significantly effects future educational opportunities and success
-sometimes used to test a national sample of students against standard test takers
-designed to highlight the achievment differences between students to rank a continuum of achievement from high to low achievers
-ranks from 1-99, 25% in lowest and 25% in highest
Criterion-referenced assessments
-look at specific learning goals and performance compared to norm group of student learners
-helps educators assess how well a student has learned the knowledge and skills they are expected to have mastered
-used to see if schools are meeting standards
-used to reflect effectiveness of curriculum implementation and learning outcomes
Perfomance-based assessments
-measure the learning outcomes of individual students in subject content area
-in classrooms these assessments must have established performance criteria that start with pre-testing in a subject area and maintain daily or weekly testing assess student learning goals and objective
-Effective assessments show holes in student learning which helps teacher to provide fillers to bridge the gaps
-Usually in the form of research papers, oral presentations, class projects, portfolios, community service projects
In order to determine which assessment is best, states, districts, and schools must determine...
-testing outcome expectation
-content learning outcome
-effectiveness of the assessment in meeting the learning goals and objectives of students
Informal assessments
Checklists, observations, performance assessment/tasks
-some checklists are more narrowly defined than others;the broader ones are better for IEPs
-should run multiple of those before listing something as a strength or weakness in an IEP--- look at 3 measures
-the reason behind the needs for individualized strategies, the nature of them and the scope should always be clearly explained
-regular progress monitoring with assessment measures specifically designed for progress monitoring is the best way to evaluate success of instruciton
-set realistic goals and aims based on normative data for the rates of growth in specific skills
Direct observation
need to be involved inconstant assessment to ensure students are making progress related to their IEP goals and objectives across different learning environments
-trained personnel observe and record possible causes of behavior and the consequence of that behavior over a period of time
-data is analyzed to develop a hypothesis statement and strategies to decrease bad and increase good behaviors
indirect methods
interviews and checklists
Functional behavior assessment
combination for direct.indirect observation, data analysis and development of hypothesis
-regular occurrence when students are struggling within school environment
-helps develop plan of action to help improve behavioral skills
Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP)
after the functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is complete
-specific plan of action with strategies, accomodations, modifications, supplementary aids, support systems, program, and positive behavioral strategies
-becomes part of the IEP
-general and special ed teachers must be present and actively participate in the development of the BIP
how to diagnose abilities and assess them
-Data and Ongoing reading assessment is used to adjust instruction to meet students reading needs
-assessment allows students to take ownership of their own learning and become partners in their ongoing development as readers and writers
Informal way of diagnosing
uses observations and non0standardized procedures to compile anecdotal and observational evidence of progress
Formal way to assess
uses standardized tests and procedures carried out under circumscribed conditions
Effective assessments
-are an ongoing provess;not obtrusive but rather a natural part of instruction
-integrated into ongoing instruction
-reflect the actually reading and writing experience classroom learning has prepared the student for
-should be a collaborative and reflective process: teachers should be informed by own observations and children's comments
-are multidimensional
-take children's age, ethnic and cultural background into account
-assess to teach children from strengths, not weaknesses
-should be done WITH children not ON them
Key criterion tests measuring performance agaisnt a standard
-Degrees of Reading Power (DRP_: assess the process of the child's reading
-CTPIII: measures verbal and quantitative reasoning to separate highest performing students; emphasizes higher order thinking skill and proecss-related reading comprehension
Comcepts of validity, reliabilty and bias in testing
Validity: does it measure what its supposed to
Reliabilty: is it consistent in its findings
Bias: are the questions/answers unavailable to some doe to race, age, gender, etc.
Rubric for constructing meaning through writing
0: it does not accomplish task; is illegible
4: it has exemplary detail, organization, and presents a well expressed reaction
miscue analysis
looks at reading process by studying students miscues from an oral reading sample; which cues are they correctly/incorrectly using?
Informal reading inventories
-group vs. individual reading assessments
how to teach phonological awareness
-separate, blend, add, take apart sounds to form new sounds (words)
-Snap if the words share a sound
-read books that rhyme
-read books with alliteration
How to assess phonological awareness
are these two words the same or different?
things from SPED gen curriculum exam that you know
Information gathered those involved in IEP can be used to make instructional decisions
classroom organization: vary group arrangments and sizes, and who is leading the discussion
Classroom management: very grading, reinfrcement and rules systems
Methods presentation: content= amount to be learned, time to learn, concept level. General structure= advance organizers, immediate feedback, memory devices, active student involvement. Type of presentation: verbal or written, transparancies, audiovisual
methods of practice
General Structure: amount to be practiced, time to finsih, group student or teach led, varied difficulty levles
-level of response: copying, recognition, recall with or without cues
-Types of material: worksheets, audiovisual, text
Methods of testing
Type: verbal, written, deminstrative
General structure: time to complete, amount to complete, group or individual
Level of response: multiple choice, essay, recall of facts
advance organizers encourage students to...
-comnect information to what they already know
-make abstract ideas more concrete
-capture students' interest
-help students organzie the info and visualize relationships
-these can be: visual aids, verbal cures, question and graphic-oriented study guides, concept diagramming, semantic feature analysis: table with concept in one column and feature in the other. Semantic webbing: concept is placed in middle of chard with relevant details surrounded. Mneumonic devices
Can be used...
-before lesson to alert students of main point
-during lesson to help organize information
-at close to summarzie and remember main points
Explaining results: Serve as resource for rest of teachers by...
-working with teachers in classroom to organize setting
-work with small groups of students in classroom
-prepare IEP for students needing extra assistance
-create inclusive classrooms
-track progress and perform assessments
-apply knowledge of guidelines for referring students to appropriate specialists when more in-depth information about a child's needs is required for making educational decisions
procedures for developing and implementing Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), Individual Family Service Plans (IFSPs), and transition plans.
-Demonstrate knowledge of issues in definition and identification procedures for individuals with disabilities, including those associated with individuals from culturally and/or linguistically diverse backgrounds
IEP team
parents of child, at least one regular education teacher of the child, at least one sped teacher, a representative of local educational agency, an individual who can interpret the instructional implications of evaluation results, at the descrepancy of the parents, others who have knowledge about the child. whenever appropriate, the child
Roles of members
-representative of educational agency: provide or supervise provision of specifically designed instruction to meet the needs of the child (usually the school principal)
Teachers: identify the short and long term goals on student and give progress reports including strengths and weaknesses
Transition planning
preapring the student for post-school starting at age 15
-a student oriented event that necessitate a collaborative endeavor
-student, parents, secondary personenel, postsecondary personnel
in order to participate in the transition process a student must...
-understand their disability and how it affects them
-implement acheivable goals
-present a postive self-image
-know how and when to discuss and ask for needed accomodations
-establish support network
Primary function of parent is to assist in goal planning and achievment
Learning Theories: Piaget's stages of development
Sensory motor (birth-2)
Pre-operational (2-7)
Concrete operation (7-11)
Formal Operational (11-15)
Principles of the brain
-the brain is a complex adaptive system
-it is social
-the search for meaning is innate
-we use patterns to learn more effectively
-emotions are crucial to development
-information is created and perceived simultaneously
-learning involves focused and peripheral attention
-Learning involves focused and peripheral attention
-Learning involves conscious and unconscious processes
-We have two way of organizing memory
-learning is developmental
-Complex learning is enhanced by challenge
-Every brain is unique
Multiple Intelligence Theory
Constructivist Theory
-Learner creates knowledge
-Learner constructs and makes meaningful new knowledge to existing knowledge
-Learner shpaes and constructs knowledge by life experiences and social interactions
-In constructivist learning communities, the student and their teacher and classmates establish knowledge cooperatively on a daily basis
-Cooperative learning environments= students encouraged to interact with instructional processes by asking questions and using own ideas to stimulate questions
Metacognition learning theory
-The teacher believes that teaching to student to process their own learning and mastery of skills provides the greatest learning and retention opportunities
-Students are taught to develop concepts and teach themselves skills in problem solving and critical thinking
-Student is active participant and teacher is facilitator of conceptual learning process
Social and Behavioral Theories
-social interactions instruct or impact learning opportunities in the classroom
-the stimulus of the classroom can promote conducive learning or maladaptive behaviors
Variety of Learning Styles: Visual Representations
see it to understand it
-slides, pictures, movies
-create own visual representations
-semantic mapping
Auditory representations
hear it to undrstand it
-listening to a cassette tape after reading it on paper
Use of nonexamples
not only what it is but what it is
-demonstrating nonexamples may be as important as demonstrating examples
e.g.: learning about triangles- seeing what is a triangle is just as important as seeing what is not a triangle
spatialize it to understand it
-supplying tangible objects that students can move to expand conceptual knowledge
Prior knowledge as the base for New Knowledge
Prior knowledge: a person's prior experiences, learning, development before entering a certain situation (can be incomplete or false)
-Schoolwork undoubtedly expands prior knowledge for new connections and comprehension
How to activate prior knowledge
-free recall: tell me what you know about...
-Unstructured discussion: lets talk about...
-Structured question: who exactly was Martin Luther King?
-Word Assocation: When you hear the words tortoise, hair, slow, fast what do you think of?
-Recognition: union south. what comes to ming?
Without a direct link between new info to something prior in a students memory....
new learning will not be automatic or useful
-these connections allow students to integrate and make sense of new information
Know-wonder-learn techniques
Three boxes: wat they know about something, what they want to learn about that something, what they learned about that something by the end of the unit
How to facilitate within the classroom: Errorless Learning
students must learn to practice errorlessly
-practice doesnt make perfect-perfect practice makes perfect
-once you learn something wrong, its even harder to learn it correctly
Teacher-derived instruction
teacher is responsible for providing the information in a teacher led format
-not the time for discovery
-time for listening only
subtle lesson between teacher and one student
e.g.: a student has tendency to shout out answer, teacher and student meet to discuss they will place a hand on their shoulder to encourage hand raising, teacher does so to prompt student to remember
-no verbal communication necessary and yet misbehavior is abolished
Discrimination learning
student is taught only to respond when certain conditions are in place
-e.g.: see an addition sign, add; dont see an addition sign, do not add
-condition= addition sign
response= add
Teaching Study skills
teach students to sort through information: what is vital and what is just fluff
Study attempts: highlighting
key ideas and vocab
less is more
Study tips: Outlining
give an outline so that students know which parts of the reading to really pay attention to
Study tips: Mapping
using graphics, pictures and words to represent info in the text
Personalize: use colors and pictures with personal meaning. Provides natural bridge to prior language and frames information in a personal way
Note taking
Teach note taking
-not an innate skill-students will write down everything they hear
-aid note taking by highlighting key facts and explicitly teaching them the skill
eliminate obviously wrong answers and narrow down from there
-in open-ended questions, restate the question and answers all parts
new study techniques: spreadsheets, word processing programs
Understand how to match learning with the needs of the students
When choosing materials, align them as much as possible with general the general education curriculum so that you can get closer to the end goal-- full integration into regular curriculum
--keep in mind you may be working out of grade level
----> if you have a 7th grader performing at a 5th grade level youll want the materials associated with the 5th grade curriculum given it aligns with the majority of skills
Once materials are chosen... teach it in an eclectic way
with such variations among abilities, issues, and needs there is no one-size fits all
There will need to be a certain level of give and take in deciding which skills to develop over another...
Keep gen ed curriculum in mind while monitoring the progress of your students and you will make an informed decision
Acknowledge variety of learning styles and abilities among your class
and among your classes and apply multiple instructional and assessment processes to ensure that every child has appropriate opportunities to aster the subject matter, demonstrate that mastery, and improve with each lesson
Engage all the senses- not just hearing
kids will check out if all they are doing is listening to you lecture
-limit the length of lectures and use other teaching methods
---> they will enjoy the learning process more and become more engaged in their own learning
Focus on the student
their attitudes about learning are the most powerful factor in influencing focus and success
make it relevant to their interests and lives
Help them develop positive attitudes about learning
Differentiated instruction to connect all students and promote success
Content: what do you want to teach? what do you want children to learn? -students will have access to content they actually care about
Process: engage in different classroom management techniques --dynamic, flexible group activities, teacher led activities, peer learning and teaching
Product: the expectations placed on students should reflect their own capabilities
Use Alternative assessment
-allow kids to create an answer or response instead of having to choose from prepared response e.g. multiple choice, matching, true/false
Alternative Assessment:
-requries higher order thinking
-provides opportunity for self assessment and reflection
-uses real world application to connect students to subject matter
-provide opportunity for students to facilitate their own learning
5 Basic Grouping Arrangements: 1) Large group and teacher
-show and tell, movies, games
-advantages: time efficient and prepares students for secondary/postsecondary education setting
Disadvantages: instruction cant be tailored to needs of individuals
Suggestions: keep it short, encourage all students ,incorporate visual aids, take breaks, establish rules of conduct
2) small group instruction
Advantages: effective for students with learning problems, teacher is able to provide better feedback, monitor progress
3) one student, one teacher
can be used to provide an extra assistance to individuals
assigned to specific times during the day or as needed
4) Peer tutoring
peers recieve training and are matched with a peer who needs help- academics, social skills, cooperation, self esteem
-teacher dominates target goal, selects material, monitors and evaluates
5) Cooperative learning
-small group focused on teamwork, individual accountability and group rewards
-goals, target skills, materials, guidelines developed by teacher
-encouraged to help other and improve own performance
Curriculum Design
reviews of previous lesson
step by step presentations with multiple examples
-guided practice and feedback
-independent practice
-remember: do not introduce too much new information at once, review difficult material and practice aid retention, teach strategies/algorithims first then move on to difficult tasks
How to address student needs
vary assignments to accommodate different styles
-engage cooperative learning
-provide clear structure and goals
-clearly state assignments and expectations
-employ independent practice
-overlearning already mastered skills
Rules for curriculum
general and special ed curriculum should follow state learning standards
-make the necessary modification and accomodations to do so
e.g. students are expected to learn math, accomodate LD kids' need for hands-on learning by using additional instruction and practice using snap-together cubes to grasp the idea of grouping by tens
Preparing students for transitions into new situations
-encourage planning and goal setting;practice it
-be their advocate but teach them the necessary skills to advocate for themselves too (communication skills, what are their ambitions and hopes?)
-help grant them experiences with expectations and future plans
Collaboration is vital
-- everyone should have a brief rough draft of a plan so that forces can combine
--needs of the student should be the center, no personal agendas
-skills needed for teacher: listening skills, solid understanding of all facets of transitioning and where to get more information, patience to explain clearly the steps required of the student and family
Short term objectives for through out that year as well as a year-long program in IEPs
-looking in to future is necessary to ensure curricular goals are met
--might not be the same as the regular curricular goal but it reflects that goal to degree (should build upon previous learning, should take into account areas that need to be developed)
-you need to keep in mind appropriate learning theory and the diversity of the student's learning style and needs
--instructional practices should have a proven research and theoretical basis but also meet the specific needs of the student
Curriculum mapping
month by month
-the general curriculum, instructional tools used to implement it and other factors affecting the school year are taken into consideration
-helps teachers to know which concepts should be taught, reviewed, and mastered through out each month
Collaboration to provide equal opportunities to disabled students
-General educators, special educators, school psychologists, speech and language pathologists, parents, interpreters can all be advocates!
-communication cannot be sporadic
-LD students develop greater self-images and sense of academic strength when included in mainstream classrooms
-the major focus of special ed is to prepare students to become working, independent members of society as well as further education, requiring more than just academic skills
Affective social skills
inability to understand expectations or reactions of others largely disrupts ability to succeed in adult world
instruction in this area might include: eye contact, interpretation of personal space, ability to put feelings into words
Career and vocation skills
-responsibility for actions, good work ethic, and independence should be incorporated into academic setting
-encourage students to: completing assignments on time to the best of their ability, use assistive devices as needed, ask questions what expectations arent clear
• When considering personal and social behavior of student, it is important to be specific and detailed in reporting these expectations in the IEP or BIP
instill in students an understanding that what may be acceptable in one setting is not acceptable in another
-develop a clear plan
-role play
- a note card with helpful reminders
keep in mind these students often require explicit teaching of these skills, skills most of us take for granted
Balancing time, materials and instruction teaching special ed
need to manage own time as well as keep track of regular classroom schedule, school schedule , specialist and resource staff schedules and still manage to deliver effective instruction
-plan meetings before instruction (ensures fewer interruptions)
General rules of thumb for elementary or secondary and regular or resource classrooms
-allow time for transitions, planning and set up
-try to pace instruction quickly to allot more practice time
-proceed from short to long assignements, breaking up longer ones
-follow low interest topic with high interest topic
-when students are working on individualized plans dont schedule hard activities all at once
Special considerations for elementary school
-dont forget PE lunch and recess
-15-20 minute housekeeping activites
-schedule academics when students are more alert- afternoon
-build in time for slower learners to finish
special considerations for secondary education
resource room time should be scheduled so as not to make students late for other classes or nonacademic activities
Ways SPED students can benefit in general education classrooms
-Co Teaching: both general and special education teacher actively teach in the general curricular classroom, often switching roles back and forth within a class period or at the end of a unit
-Push In teaching: special ed teacher is teaching parallel material in the general education classroom; teachers teach simultaneously
Consultant Teaching: general ed teacher conducts class after planning with special educator about how to differentiate activities so the needs of their student are met
Skill instruction can include
conversation skills, assertiveness, coping skills, self-help
How can the teacher help
be a good role model
communicate expectations clearly and firmly
Students with low levels of reading and math need to have familiarity with real-life situations
domestic, leisure, vocational activities often require basic grasps of these concepts so the student should have the opportunity to learn them in the classroom
-learning how to order from a resturant
-learning how to use a phone
Helping students develop sensitivity to others
-label series of emotion faces
-perform a gesture; what does it mean? class activity of performing and guessing
-watch a movie and ask what gestures mean
Behaviors in social situations
student act of roles and discuss the consequences of their actions
gain appropriate independence
student finishes a story from the point where a judgment is required
plan and execute a game or exercise
Coordination between school and home is essential when teaching self care skills
Forward Chaining: recognizes goal and works from the first step towards the goal and progresses forward to the goal as each new step is attained
Backward Chaining: may be a disability that doesnt normally comprehend forward chaining; looks at goal and focuses on teaching last step that is necessary before achieving it
Five principle acquisition
-The acquisition learning hypothesis (acquired L1, learn L2)
-Monitor hypothesis (acquired language monitors learned language)
-the natural order hypothesis (learning gramatical structures is predictable and follows an order)
-Input hypothesis (learner will learn best when instruction is just above their ability)
-Affective filter hypothesis (people will learn a second language when they are relaxed, have high levels of motivation, and have decent self-confidence
How to teach ESOL students
-dont dumb it down
-use social learning methods: pair with peer of different ability in nonthreatening env, use familiar stimuli in teacher directed
Five stages of second language development
Preproduction: understand, cant produce
Early Production: limited but its there
Emergent Speech: longer more complex sentences
Immediate Fluency
Advanced Fluency
Language of curriculum: Scope
horizontal aspect of curriculum
e.g. topic is invertebraes, scope would be everything that must be taught for comprehension of the topic
the outline of what should be taught before and after a particular subject; lines it all up
e.g. students should learn addition and subtraction before division and multiplication
Design curriculum knowing what you want students to get out of the program
principle aim of curriculum: what the curriculum wants students to get out of it
knowledge base of the curriculum: is the teacher familiar with the mateiral?
the plan, scope and sequence: what would students have learned prior? where will they go next
Bottom up or code emphasis apprach to teaching beginning readers
Decoding skills rule
-letter sound regularity stressed
instruction begins with words with letter or letter-combinations that have the same sound in different words
--phonics, linguinstic, modified alphabet
Top-down or meaning emphasis model of beginning reading skills
-reading for meaning emphasized from the get go
-programs begin with words that appear frequently, assumed to be familiar, are easy to learn
-words identified by examining meaning and position in context and are decoded by whole language, language experience, individualized reading programs
Developmental reading approaches: Basal Reading
form the core of many widely used reading programs from pre-primers to 8th grade
-some use meaning-emphasis other code-emphasis
-vocab is controlled from level to level and reading skills cover word recognition, word attack and comprehension
-structured sequential manner is an advantage
-recommend both directed reading acitivity procedure and direct reading-thinking
-disadvantages include emphasis on teaching to a group than the individual, strucutre limits creativity, does not provide enough material on organizational skills
Phonics Approach
synthetic: letter sounds are learned before student blends them to form words
Analytic: teaches letter sounds as integrals parts of words
-sounds are usually taught in a sequence
Criticisms: emphasis on pronunciation may lead focus on decoding rather than comprehension, some students have trouble blending sounds, some students get confused when they dont conform to rules
Advocates: good for remedial and developmental reading
Linguistic Approach
Whole-word approach: words are taught in families as a whole (e.g. cat, pat, rat), focus on words instead of isolated sounds, similar spelling patterns and irregular spelling taught as sight words
Advantages: student learns reading is talking written down, develops sense of sentence structure, consistent visual patterns of lesson guides from familiar to progressively more difficult words
Disadvantages: extremely controlled vocab, emphasis on auditory memory skills and use of nonsense words
Whole-Language Approach
-taught as a holistic, meaning-oriented activity and not broken down into collection of skills
-relies heavily on printed matter and literature selected for a particular purpose
-seeks to develop instruction in real problems and ideas
-phonics not tuaght in systemic way; assumed to develop concurrently with exposure to print
-writing as compliment to reading
-criticized for lack of instruction in specific skill strategies
--- when working with LD kids, more direct instruction may be needed to develop the word-recognition skills neccessary for achieving comprehension
Language experience approach
-similar to whole language; literature is emphasized, students encouraged to write about experiences
-BUT written language is seen as secondary system to oral language- whole language treats them as one structure
-used with beginner readers and older readers for corrective instruction
-reading skills are developed alongside listening speaking and writing
philosophy: what they think about they can talk about, what they say they can write or have someone write, what students written or have someone write, they can read
-progress evaluated in terms of change of written and oral expression and mechanics
Advantages: motivates and engages student interest
Disadvantage: no set method of evaluation
Individualized reading approach
-select own reaiding material according to interest and ability--> are able to progress at their own indv rates
-word recognition and comprehension are taught as needed
-teacher helps with errors and prescribing material but students are main agents
-individual work supplemented with group basal reader activity and workbooks
-Lack of systematic check and emphasis on self-learning may be disadvantage
Word attack skills
techniques that enable student to decode an unknown word so they can pronounce and understand it in the right context
-included in the area of phonics, strucutral analysis, contextual and configuration clues, decoding
Comprehension should be evaluted according to
-past experience of reader
-content of passage
-syntax of passage
-vocab of passage
-oral language comprehension of student
-Questions being asked to assess comprehension
Strategies to assist silent reading
-preparing activities or questions pertaining to passage
-allow time for pleasurable reading
Print awareness is necessary to
know we read from left to right
to understand what happens when you reach the end of the page
assessment: pretend youre the teacher and show me with your finger how to read. point to the word im saying; begins with the same letter but one is significantly longer
Big Five Skills For REading
Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, comprehension, vocabulary (pervasive across all areas of reading; not sequential)
Understanding math
Four processes involved in basic number concepts:
-Describing= characterizing objects, sets, events in terms of attributes (all tigers and cats are kitties)
-Classifying= sorting objects, sets, events in terms of one or more criterion (black vs white kitties)
-Comparing= determining whether two objects, sets, events, are similar or different according to a specified attribute (differentiating boys and girls because of genitals)
-Ordering= comparing two or more objects, set, events (ordering children based on age or height)
Math Concepts learned before school
-equalizing: making two or more things similar
-joining: combining to or more things to make one thing
-separating: breaking apart one thing to make multiple
-measuring: attaching a number to an attribute
patterns: recognizing, developing, repeating patterns
concepts typically not understood prior to instruction
-understanding and working with numbers larger than 10, part-whole concept, numerical notation: place value, additive system, 0
sequence of math understand
Concrete= demonstrating 3+4=7 using buttons
Semi-concrete= using pictures of buttons
Abstract= student solves problem without manipulatives
Best for LD kids
-direct instruction from teacher is better in this case over peer instruction
-teaching problem solving strategies is more effective than using rote practice
-concrete instruction is better than problem solving skills
-engaging students as active participants is awesome
-well planned cooperative learning activities can offer meaningful practice and improvement
Skills necessary for problem solving
-identifying main idea
-main question of problem
-identifying important facts
-choosing the strategy and operation
-solving the problem
problem solving is the process of applying prior experience to new situations
How to adapt for disabilities: allot time for development, make sure prerequisite skills are there, use error analysis to diagnose difficulty areas, teach appropriate terminology, have them estimate answers
Vocational Educational programs
-prepare students for entry into occupations of labor force and helps them become self-sufficient , self-supporting citizens
based on:
--students need specific traning in job skills
--students need training and superivisoin in applying skills learned in school to requirements in job situations
--vocational traning can provide instruction and field-based experience
Career education
career awareness: diversity of available jobs
Career exploration: skills needed for occupational groups
Career preparation: specific training required for world of work
Understand how to create a positive learning environment that promotes and supports the participation of all learners.
-be a role model
-demonstrate knowledge of the process for inventorying instructional environments to determine whether adaptations to the environment must be made to meet a studnets individual needs
-is the school environment inclusive of students with varying physical abilities?
apply knowledge of stratigies for facilitationg a learning community in which individual differences are respected
Common attitudes and biases that affect the acceptance of individuals with disabilities
Fairness: the less visible the difference, the more unaccepting some people are (explain how it is really leveling the playing field)
Listen and respond to complaints in a dispassionate and logical manner to diffuse the situation: be matter of fact, provide clear explanations
Universal Design
an approach whereby everything is accessible to everyone
For the environment: equal use for all, flexible use for all, simple and intuitive, preceptible information, tolerance for error, low physical effort, size space for approach and use
For teaching and education: providing many different ways to acquire info, providing many different ways for students to demonstrate what they know, providing many ways to engage student in the learning
Classroom interventions to nullify potential discipline problems
-nonverbal intervention (prompts)
-body language (power poses)
Planned ignoring (when teachers ignore attention-seeking so do students)
-Signal interference (nonverbal cues)
-Proximity control: command the room
-removal or seductive objects
-verbal interventions: only when nonverbal didnt work
-sane messages (model appropriate behaviors)
-restructuring: responding to disinterest
-hypodermic affection: kind word or smile
-Praise and encouragement
-alerting: smooth transitions between activities
-accepting student feelings
Tornado evacuation
-evacuate students and personnel to first floor of multi-story buildings and place students along walls away from windows
- all persons should crouch on the floor and cover head in hands
Integrated approach to learning
triangular to demonstrate effective collaboration of patient teacher and community supports
what causes motivation
Different types of need: physiological, safety, belongings, esteem, self actualization
ERG: growth needs, relatedness needs, existence needs
Cognitive ecaluation theory
intrinsic vs extrinsic
-Positive reinforcment
-negative reinforcement
-extinction (do nothing)
-when to give rewards? = fixed interval schedule, fixed ratio schedule, variable interval schedule, variable ratio schedule
IEP deadlines
-must meet within 60 days of referral
-must meet within 30 days of confirmation of special service eligibility
-must be reviewed once a year
-parents must be informed of progress as least as often as parents of non-disabled children
IEP includes
-present levels of academic and functional performance
-Annual goals: should be created using school system's course of study, IL learning standards and curriculum
-Measurement of progress and how progress will be shared
-What special ed and related services will be provided: duration, frequency, location, who?
-how the child will assess the general education curriculum
-the modifications that will be provided assessment info
-description of any assistive tech
transition planning
-begins at age 14 and continues until graduation or age 22
-prepares student for life after high school
-helps plan and choose courses
-helps students with adaptive behavioral skills
-gives opportunity to explore work and career options
Activities Addressed: instruction, community experience, development of employment and postsecondary goals, daily living skills are not essential to the IEP but they are important