52 terms

Ch. 16 Key Terms

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Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863)
outlined a path by which each southern state could rejoin the union.
Also known as the 10% plan, a) Full presidential pardons would be granted to most southerners who 1) took an oath of allegiance to the Union and the US Constitution and 2) accepted the emancipation of slaves. B) A state govt could be reestablished and accepted as legitimate by the US president as soon as at least 10% of the voters in that state took the loyalty oath.
Lincoln's 10% plan
Also known as the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. Called for 10% of southern voters in 1860 to pledge allegiance to the Union and accept emancipation. Excluded Confederate government officials, officers, as well as officers who resigned form congress. They instead needed to apply for presidential pardons. Blacks were also excluded because they didnt vote in 60
Wade-Davis Bill
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned. Stronger than 10% plan
pocket veto
A veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it. Used by Lincoln, A bill fails to become law because the president did not sign it within ten days before Congress adjourns
Thirteenth Amendment (1865)
Constitutional amendment prohibiting all forms of slavery and involuntary servitude. Former Confederate States were required to ratify the amendment prior to gaining reentry into the Union., This Amendment was made to forbid slavery, making slavery and involuntary servitude both illegal. It could only be used as a punishment for crime. This Amendment was ratified in 1865, after the war was over. The South had to ratify it to be readmitted to the Union.
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Presidential Reconstruction
occurred from 1865-1877 and was an attempt from President Abraham Lincoln to reunite the North and the South. Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan, the Wade-Davis Bill and the Freedmen's Bureau were all part of the reconstruction plan. Because Lincoln's Reconstruction plans were cut short after his assassination in 1865, new President Andrew Johnson took matters into his own hands by announcing that on the ratification of the 13th Amendment Southern states would be re-admitted into the Union.
"black codes"
To keep African-Americans from their inalienable rights. They deprived blacks of life, liberty or property without due process of law. In 1866, a small group of leaders in the Radical Republican Party got Congress to pass a Civil Rights Act which eliminated it.
Freedman's Bureau
federal agency set up in 1865 to provide food, schools, and medical care to freed slaves in the South
Joint Committee on Reconstruction
the situation in the South left Northerners wondering why they had gone to war since blacks were essentially being re-enslaved, and so many moderates began rejecting Johnson's plan and create this. It said that by seceding, the southern states had forfeited all civil and political rights under the Constitution They denied stating of southern legislators, and maintained that only Congress could determine if, when, and how Reconstruction would take place. Part of the reconstruction plan devised to replace Johnson's plan is demonstrated in the Fourteenth Amendment, which was one the first steps for setting laws to protect blacks.
Senator Lyman Trumbull (R., Ill.)
-Illinois Senator (Democrat, then Republican, 1855-73)
-grew estranged from President Lincoln at the outset of the Civil War
-pushed for stronger Confiscation Acts than Mr. Lincoln liked, but the President approved of Trumbull's sponsorship of the Thirteenth Amendment that abolished slavery
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition. Gave African Americans citizenship and same legal rights as whites
Fourteenth Amendment (1866)
-ensured that the 1866 Civil Rights Act would have its intended power
-did not give former slaves rights to vote
-however, guaranteed citizenship to all males born in the US, regardless of race
-Republican congressmen stated southern states had to ratify the amendment before they could reenter the Union
-1868 - enough states ratified, 14th amendment was added to the Constitution
"swing around the circle"
In the 1866 election campaign, President Johnson traveled widely trying to rally public support for his Reconstruction program. His effort failed as many Republicans won election.
Race riots in Memphis and New Orleans (1866)
In May 1866 race riots broke out in Memphis and in New Orleans. Although Congress imposed military rule, the southerners felt like they had hit rock bottom and did not care what happened to them so they continued to act as they wanted. Blacks held conventions or political meetings to protest ill treatment and demand rights.
Southern Homestead Act (1866)
offered 80-acre grants to settlers, limited for the first year to freedmen and southern Unionists. The advantage was mostly symbolic though because the land that was offered was in infertile parts of the Lower South and few of the homesteaders succeeded.
Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction
-Thaddeus Stevens/Charles Sumner: Punish the South
-1868-1876
-Supported by military rule (South divided into five military districts)
-Civil rights bills passed
-States must ratify the 14th Amendment (extended citizenship to former slaves)
-State constitutions include a guarantee or full suffrage to freedmen
-15th Amendment (right to vote for freedmen)
(Military) Reconstruction Act of 1867
congressional law that imposed military rule on the south and demanded harsh conditions for readmission of the seceded states, imposed martial law on the south; also called for new state constitutional conventions and forced the states to allow blacks to vote for convention delegates. Also required each state to ratify the 14th amendment
Congressman Thaddeus Stevens
-from PA
-extreme radical republican
-head of House Ways and Means Committee
-support Lincoln in 1860, however was constant critic of his moderate actions against the South
-"leader" of Radical Republicans
-prime instigator in the impeachment proceedings against Johnson
Army Appropriations Act (March, 1867)
-1867
-came as result of Radicals wanting to make sure officers of U.S. Army would remain in their positions of power
-included provision added by Radicals that required the President to issue military orders through a commanding general, a figure who could be removed only by Senate action
To prevent Pres. Johnston from blocking reconstruction
Tenure of Office Act (March, 1867)
Johnson wasn't doing his part to enforce Congressional Reconstruction so the radicals and moderates teamed up again to create the Army Appropriations Act and Tenure of Office Act. The tenure of office act was created to prevent Johnson from firing secretary of war Edwin Stanton who supported the reconstruction acts. The act prohibited the president from removing civil officers without Senate consent.
Sec of War Edwin Stanton
Supported Congressional Reconstruction. When Congress left session he was suspended by Johnson and replaced with Grant. When Congress returned they refused to approve Stanton's suspension, upon which Grant vacated the office and Johnson replaced Stanton with Lorenzo. This caused Johnson to be impeached but he wasn't convicted by one vote short of the ⅔ majority needed because some congress members were unsure of the Constitutionality of the Tenure of Office Act and because they didn't want to upset the balance of power in the government.
Gen Ulysses S. Grant
eighteenth President. the U.S. Commander of Union Forces who accepted Lee's surrender in 1865, general in the Union Army who was removed from command after the battle of Shiloh; forced Lee to surrender the Confederacy at Appomattox Courthouse
Fifteenth Amendment (1869)
Amendment that gave African American citizens the right to vote
carpetbaggers
A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
scalawags
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Sen. Hiram Revels (R., Miss)
-first African American to serve in the U.S. Congress
Sen. Blanche Bruce (R., Miss)
African American Senator who was the first black to serve full term in Senate
Ku Klux Klan (1866)
White paramilitary organization whose members, cloaked in sheets to conceal their identities, terrorized freedmen and sympathetic whites throughout the South after the Civil War. By the 1890s, Klan-style violence and Democratic legislation succeeded in virtually disenfranchising all Southern blacks.
three Enforcements Act (May 1870- Feb. 1871)
first one was passed in May 1870 and provided for the protection of black voters. The second one passed in February 1871 provided for federal supervision of southern elections. The Third Enforcement Act or the Ku Klux Klan Act was passed in 1871 to strengthen sanctions against those who impeded black suffrage. The third enforcement act also allowed the president to use federal troops to enforce the law and to suspend habeas corpus in areas that he declared in insurrection. Court cases in 1876 and 1883 nullified these acts.
Amnesty Act (1872)
as a sign of changing times, this act removed the last of the restrictions on ex- Confederates, except for the top leaders. Allowed southern conservatives to vote for democrats to retake control of state government.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Gave blacks the privilege of American citizenship and denied states' the right to restrict blacks of their property, testify in court, and make contracts for their labor. Johnson vetoed this, but Congress voted to override the veto.
sharecropping
a system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
crop-lien economy
Where rural merchants-often planters themselves-advanced supplies to tenants and sharecroppers and sold their crops to wholesalers or textile manufacturers. Secured their loans with lien-claim-on farmers' next crop. Farmers then had to pay part of crop to the land-owners and to the rural merchants which created a cycle of poverty and indebtedness that linked them to sharecropping and to their superiors so that it was reminiscent of slavery.
election of 1868
The Republicans nominated General Grant for the presidency in 1868. The Republican Party supported the continuation of the Reconstruction of the South, while Grant stood on the platform of "just having peace."The Democrats nominated Horatio Seymour. Grant won the election of 1868.
Gov. Horatio Seymour (Dem, NY)
Ran against Grant in the election of 1868 as a Democrat. Criticized Lincoln's administration and Reconstruction.
Jay Gould and James Fisk's Gold Scheme
A attempt by Gould and Fisk to corner the gold market by buying a lot of gold, driving up gold prices.
Schuyler Colfax and Credit Mobilier scandal
the Credit Mobilier was a fraudulent construction company that tried to skim off of Union Pacific railroad profits. Government funds intended for the railroad company were given by the directors of the railroad company as padded construction contracts for the Crédit Mobilier company-of which they were also the directors. Schuyler Colfax, Grant's vice president, was found to be involved with this scandal and was dropped from Grant's ticket in the 1872 election.
whiskey ring
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
Indian ring
Grant's Secretary of War, William W. Belknap was impeached for accepting bribes to award fraudulent contracts to companies wanting to do business on the Indian reservations.
"Grantism"
19th century term for political corruption during the Gilded Age. Which included bribery scandals, abuses of the spoils system and political cronyism.
Boss Tweed
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
Seward's Folly
Secretary of State William Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. At the time everyone thought this was a mistake to buy Alaska the "ice box" but it turned out to be the biggest bargain since the Louisiana purchase
Liberal Republicans
(USG) , wanted to end Reconstruction, sought honest government, and the riding of "grantism', so they nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley, hoping that Grant would be defeated if they united against him. But Regular Republicans renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory for Grant.
Horace Greeley and the New York Tribune
Editor of New York Tribune. A great eccentric who called for "more honest government." Democrats also nominate Horace Greeley in 1872 election. Greeley dies before votes were cast He gets 3 electoral votes out of respect - Grant gets 286.
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver)
Jay Cooke
A New York financier who was interested in the OSN Railroads. When he acquired the charter of the North Pacific, he persuaded Congress to enlarge the land grants 60 miles on each side of the railroad, and he allowed timber companies to sell of these lands.His bankruptcy caused a national depression.
election of 1876
Race for the presidency between Republican Rutherford B Hayes and Democrat Samuel J Tilden. The decision of the winner came down to congress but no one knew which house should vote because the Senate was Republican and the House of Reps was Democratic. Congress created a Special Electoral Commission consisting of 5 senators, 5 House Reps, and 5 justices from the Supreme court. Votes went 8-7 in favor of Hayes.
Rutherford B. Hayes
1877-1881, Republican, against Tilden (played role to crush Tweed Ring), ended Reconstruction through election bargain
Samuel Tilden
Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. A political reformer, he was a Bourbon Democrat who worked closely with the New York City business community, led the fight against the corruption of Tammany Hall, and fought to keep taxes low
home rule
self-government in local matters by a city or county that is part of a national government
Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South. (ended reconstruction)