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BME Ch 5-10 review questions
Terms in this set (75)
Classes of microbes
Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, Protozoa, Viruses
Bacteria Cell structure
1.25 nano meters
Culturing bacteria; streak and spread plates
Spread onto agar plate, grown over night, incubated
Transformation and electroporation
Taking up plasmids, transformation uses heat shock, electroporation uses plasmids and ions with electric field
Expression cloning; know markers/components noted in lecture outline
Transcription: Inducible promoter, Operator, transcription start, ATF [ORF] Stop, Transcription termination, repressor
Luciferase, what it is, what genes encode it and how it works as a reporter
releases light in the conversion of Luciferin to Oxyluciferin, encoded by Lux genes coming together to encode the protein, Lux genes expressed = cells glow
thermstable DNA polymerase used in PCR, can take high temp.
Antibiotics; basics, know one mechanism from the figure
Don't counter viral infections, either inhibit reproduction or kills bacteria directly
Smallpox vaccine; Edward Jenner's work, effectiveness of the vaccine
Took live virus from skin ulcers on woman who had smallpox. Smallpox was eradicated in 1980.
Antigens, White Blood Cells and Antibodies; know their roles in the immune response
non-self molecules present on bacteria that elicit antibody production. White blood Cells (leukoctyes) bind to foreign matter. T Cells, bind and destroy and B cells, make antibodies. Antibodies bind to antigen and target the invader for destruction
Primary and secondary response; induction of active immunity with vaccines
Primary, first exposure, antibodies produced in a few days, B cells activated to form plasma cells(antibody production) and Memory cells
Secondary, subsequent, response is enhanced with memory cells, aka active immunity.
Classes of vaccines
Attenuated - live viruses modified to not reproduce
Inactivated - dead ones
Subunit - parts of bacteria that elicit a response
Retrovirus life cycle
RNA Genome, RNA(reversetranscriptase) cDNA
Brings three enzymes: reverse transcriptase, integrase, HIV-1 protease
Influenza viruses; HA protein's role in infection and how changes in it can make resistant strains.
HA on virus binds to recepot or human cells, allow uptake. Changes in gene for HA can produce new strains that evade secondary.
PulseNet and PFGE
Uses DNA fingerprinting to rapidly identify strains of microbes. PulseField Gel Electrophoresis uses modified agarose gel electrophoresis to be used to with large DNA pieces.
Protoplast fusion and plant trasngenesis (methods, tools, and terminology)
Addition of a transgene, using Agro bacter (bacterium that infects plant cells causing Crown Gall tumors, or Gene guns, which shoot gold beats coated with recomb DNA into plant cells.
Advantages of engineering chloroplast genes
can add more than one gene at once to produce a hybrid in a single step, better rates of continued activity of transgenes, not carried in pollen
Antisense technology and the Flavr Savr tomato
adding a gene complementary to mRNA gene of interest, which hybridizes normal copy and interferes with translation. Flavr Savr tomato has polygalacturonase inhibited.
Uses double stranded RNA to elicit a natural pathway tha results in degradation of the mRNA.
1 - double stranded RNA recognized by Dicer protein complex.
2 - The double-stranded siRNA associates with proteins to form an RNA-induced solencing complex
3 - the sense strand is destroyed and the antisense binds
4- the RISC goes on to mediate destruction of complementary target mRNA sequences
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat
uses guide RNA and cas9 enzyme to id and cut DNA specifically. can be used to deactivate genes or engineer genes.
One application of engineered plants
Protection against insect pests. Can be engineered to express proteins that kill insects such as Bt toxin. The protein from this bacterium destroys insect's digestive systems
Controversy of engineered plants
Biodiversity loss, super weeds, cross-pollination, accessibility to technology, and safe to eat??(yes)
Methods for engineering animals
pronuclear microinjection (into zygote prior division), embryonic stem cell (transformed ES cells added to blastocyst), sperm-mediated transfer (in the sperm),
Genetically modified mice which transgene is targeted and replaces original gene. Useful for studying what happens when a known disease is not working, but expensive and mice are not people so ???
Producing monoclonals antibodies in hybridoma cells
mAbs are super specific so are powerful in medical approaches that require targeting. produced in hybrdoma cells using two cell types: Myeloma cells: unlimited replication, and B Lymphocytes: produce the antibody once exposed to the antigen
HAMA response, antibody design
human response to antibodies made in mouse. can result in side effects. mouse antibody design is seen as foreign.
SCNT use in reproductive cloning
Somatic cell nucleus fused to an enucleated oocyte (egg with no nucleus), then grown into embryo, then implated into surrogate.
Oxidation/Reduction reactions in bioremediation
Redox reactions, reduction (gain of electron) oxidation (loss of electron)
Microbe classifications with regard to Oxygen
obligate (strict) aerobe - grow only with O2
obligate (strict anaerobe - grow only without O2
facultative anaerobes - grow with or without o2
Fertilizer-enhanced bio-remediation, bioventing, bioaugmentation, and phytoremedation
makes use of indigenous organisms that have the ability to degrade the pollutant in place (in situ) and fertilizer limits growth of the population.
Similar to in situ bioremediation but pumps O2 for aerobic biodegrading organisms
(seeding) adding bacteria to aid indigenous species clean up, sometimes uses engineered species
uses plants to clean up pollutants (taken up by the roots). Plants degrade pollutant in ground and air, but takes a while
Ex situ bioremediation
removing polluted materials and dealing with them off site.
The Anammox process: what it is and what it is used for
using bacteria that can degrade ammonia in one step, used to remove human sewage from waste water.
Know the 4 main green house gases which is one is largest contributor and source
1. CO2 -> from fossil fuels
4. Nitrous Oxide and Ozone
Describe one adaptation strategy to prepare for climate change
using more drought resistant species/strains, alter growing conditions, better conservation and usage
Be able to describe one use of aquaculture other than food
restoring and protecting marine ecosystems, seeking new approaches to monitor and treat disease... breeding fish for sale as pets, growing pearls, fish meal
Fish farming (fry, fingerlings)
Eggs (roe) and sperm (milt) taken from breeders and fertilized in small containers and the embryos are hatched, hatchlings (fry) are transferred to indoor aquariums, small fish (fingerlings) are transferred to raceways, ponds, or mesh pens.
Polyculture and aquaponics
Raising more than one species in the same environment (tilapia and lettuce). Hydroponic uses small volumes of water containing fishwaste to grow plants. The water is flown through racks with plants
Green Fluorescent Protein - from Aequorea victoria jellyfish, grows green under UV blue light. Used as reporter.
Polyploidy. what it does
increased number of sets of chromosomes, more than diploid (>2n). 3n triploid, 4n tetraploid. Cell division is interrupted and induced dispermy (fertilized an egg by 2 sperm). These organisms grow faster, usually sterile.
Engineered salmon that grow faster and mature faster than typical salmon.
gene therapy vector that inserts the transgene into a particular location on chromosome 19
Allele-specific oligonucleotide analysis (ASO)
technique that uses PCR followed by dot blotting to identify allelic variants
Genetic testing of fetal cells from amniotic fluid 16 weeks in
addition or deletion of a single chromosome from the diploid set
Chorionic Villus sampling (CVS)
genetic testing of fetal cells from a region of the placenta called the chorionic villus 8-10 weeks in
tests performed in human beings, occur in four phases
stain used to get a specific "G-banding" pattern on chromosomes
protein that signals cells to divide and/or differentiate
artificial blood substitute made from bovine hemoglobin with crosslinked subunits
depiction of the full set of 46 chromosomes for an individual
enzyme that adds a phosphate to its substrate
molecule that specifically binds to a receptor (like a growth factor)
Lipid spheres designed to deliver nucleic acids to cells
medicine tailored to the individual
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
genetic testing of in vitro fertilization embryos prior to their implantation into the womb
Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)
receptor that once bound by ligand signals addition of phosphate to tyrosine residue on a protein
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms analysis
Variations in the size of fragments produced by cutting DNA with a restriction enzyme
karyotype produced through chromosome painting with fluorescent probes.
one of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins
Adult (somatic) stem cells
Multipotent cells that divide to replace those cells that are lost in the adult
Meaning from someone other than the recipient, must match the recipient or will be rejected
From the patient, perfect match
Embryonic Stem Cells
Pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of an early embryo
Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS)
Instrument used to separate cells based on surface markers
Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)
Problem that occurs when transplant bone marrow doesnt match the recipient and attacks patient tissue
Granulocyte- Colony Stimulating factor (GCSF) - a cytokine
signaling molecule that causes extra HSCs to migrate into the blood from the marrow.
Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Blood forming stem cell in the bone marrow
Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLAs)
type of Major histocompatibility complex used in tissue typing
iPSCs induced pluripotent stem cells
somatic cells genetically altered to become pluripotent
Major histocompatibility complex
>70 genes whose products present at the cell surface
Having the capacity to form a variety of cells all that make up one tissue
Development without fertilization with a sperm, only requires maternal genetic information
Having the capacity to form all cells of the organism but can't for the organism itself.
cells that self-renew, divide to form more specialized cells and that are not themselves differentiated
Having the capacity to form a whole organism
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