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Ch.2 Pain Management Fundamentals
Terms in this set (46)
Influences on Perception of Pain
Gender, hormones, personality traits, attitudes, behaviors, age, physical health, mental health, learned responses, cultural norms
Pain is defined as:
A negative experience
Avoidance of pain is part of the human genome so we try to avoid it & any association. It is rapid, reflexive, subconscious (intuitive)
The point which stimulus elicits a response of pain perception
An individuals reaction to painful stimuli. The amount of pain one is willing or able to endure or perceive
Lasts few seconds to no more than 6mos.
What is usually the cause of acute pain?
From injury or disease but expected to heal or get better
Pain that persists more than 6 mos w/ or w/out an identifiable cause
What is a factor in depression?
Long-term (chronic) pain
What is a must for a person w/ depression?
Coping skills along w/ meds, behavior modification, & whatever helps
Detection of tissue injury
Pain due to tissue injury
Sensory receptors that detect injury
The ability of a stimulus to be detected by a specific receptor
Sensory Modalities Include:
Hearing, sight, touch, taste, & sound
Sensory Receptors Include:
How are Nociceptors different than other receptors?
They are Polymodal
Nociceptors respond to all types of stimuli that may cause injury.They never adapt to stimulation since they are protective receptors
What causes Nociceptive Pain?
Injury or disease. can be chronic or acute
Somatic Nociceptive Pain
Superficial such as skin or muscle
Visceral Nociceptive Pain
Internal body cavities & caused by compression or expansion & infiltration
Caused by nerve injury or dysfunction. May have inflammatory, non-inflammatory &/or immune system components
Where is pain generated?
Pain w/ diabetes
Pain w/ carpal tunnel or trigeminal neuralgia
Sympathetic Nervous System
Once CNS activates the SNS, it stimulates adrenal medulla resulting the release of norepinephrine & epi
What are the fight or flight transmitters?
Norepinephrine & epinephrine
What happens w/ SNS during fight or flight?
Heart rate & BP increase, pupils dilate, bronchial & skeletal muscles dilate, mesenteric vessels constrict
What are strategies to alleviate fear in dental environment?
Ask about previous, assure that past poor experience can be managed, involve pt to help manage fear
Prepare, Rehearse, Empower, Praise
Discuss appt & what was good about it
What are some agents in to aid in pain management?
Nitrous, conscious sedation, general anesthesia, whatever works (sing)
0- No Pain 1- Hurts little bit
2- Hurts Little More 3- Hurts even more
4- Hurts whole lot 5- Hurts worst
Utilize relaxation techniques such as focused breathing, distraction such as music or visualization, muscle relaxation
Rehearse procedures allowing pt to practice control & self-calming techniques
Empower pt w/ strategies that give them control during procedures such as raising a hand to ask clinician to stop
Praise pt for using specific coping techniques
Gate control strategies:
Pressure applied w/ cotton swab, gentle lip shaking, vibration devices
Which statement best describes pain as a protective response?
Pain is a rapid, reflexive, subconscious reaction
Which of these groups of variables does not affect the experience of pain?
Body weight & height
Which one of the following statements regarding nociception is true?
Nociception is polymodal
Which one of the following is an example of neuropathic pain?
Which one of the following will help patients cope w/ anxiety & fear?
Prepare, rehearse, empower, & praise pt to reduce anxiety & fear
In the process of debriefing, which one of the following is not useful when managing fearful patients?
Clinicians select strategies for the pt for his or her next appt
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