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70 terms

Memory

STUDY
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information-processing theory
an approach to the study of mental structures and processes that uses the computer as a model for human thinking
encoding
the process of transforming information into a form that can be stored into memory
storage
the process of keeping and maintaining information in memory
consolidation
a psychological change in the brain that allows encoded information to be stored in memory
retrieval
the process of bringing to mind information that has been stored in memory
sensory memory
the memory system that holds information from the senses for a (short) period of time ranging from a fraction of a second up to 2 seconds
short-term memory
the memory system that codes information according to sound and holds about 7 (5 to 9) items for less then 30 seconds without rehearsal ; also called working memory
displacement
the event that occurs when STM is filled to capacity and each new incoming item pushes out the existing item, which is then forgetten ( overflowed study desk)
chunking
a memory strategy that involves grouping or organizing bits of information into larger units which are easier to remember.
rehearsal
the act of purposely repeating information to maintain it in STM
working memory
the memory subsystem we use when trying to understand information,remember it, use to solve a problem, or communicate with someone
maintenance rehearsal
repeating information in short term memory until it is no longer needed; may eventually lead to storage of information on LTM
elaborative rehearsal
a memory strategy that involves relating new information to something that is already known
long-term memory
the memory system that is virtually unlimited in capacity that contains vast stores of a person's permanent or relatively permanent memories
declarative (explicit) memories
the subsystem within LTM that stores facts,information and personal life events that can be brought to mind verbally or in the form of images and than declared or stated
episodic memory
the type of declarative memory that records events as the have been subjectively experienced
semantic memory
the type of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, objective facts and information
non-declarative (implicit) memory
the subsystem within LTM that stores motor skills, habits and simple classically conditioned responses
priming
a phenomenon by which an earlier encounter with a stimulus( such as a word or a picture) increases the speed and accuracy of naming that stimulus or a later stimulus in a later time
recall
a memory task in which a person must produce required information by searching memory
retrieval cues
any stimulus or bit of information that aids in retrieving particular information from LTM
recognition
a memory task in which a person must simply recognize (identify) material as familiar or as having been encountered before
relearning method
a measure of memory in which retention is expressed as the percentage of time saved when material is relearned compared with the time required to learn the material originally
savings scores
the percentage of time saved when relearning material compared with the amount of time required for the original learning
serial position effect
the finding that for information learned in a sequence, recall is better for the beginning and ending items than for the middle items in the sequence
primacy effect
the tendency to recall the first items in a sequence more readily then the middle items
recency effect
the tendency to recall the last items in a sequence more readily than the middle items
state-dependent memory effect/ learning theory
the tendency to recall information better if one is the same pharmacological or psychological state as when the information was encoded
reconstruction
an account of an event has been pieced together from a few highlights, using information that may or may not be accurate
schemas
integrated frameworks of knowledge and assumptions a person has about people,objects ,and events which affect how the person encodes and recalls information
flashbulb memory
an extremely vivid memory of the conditions surrounding one's first hearing the news of a surprising,shocking or highly emotional event (ex. Ilva)
eidetic imagery ( photographic memory)
the ability to retain the image of a visual stimulus for several minutes after it has been removed from view and to use this retained image to answer questions about the visual stimulus
infantile amnesia
the relative inability of older children and adults to recall events from the first few years of life
anterograde amnesia
the inability to form LTM of events occurring after a brain injury or surgery. Although memories formed before trauma are usually intact and STM is unaffected
long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in the efficiency of neural transmission at the synapses that last for hours or longer
nonsense syllable
a consonant-vowel-consonant combination that does not spell a word and is used in memory research
encoding failure
a cause of forgetting that occurs when information was never put into LTM
decay theory
oldest theory of forgetting, which holds that memories,if not used, fade with time and ultimately disappear altogether
interference
a cause of forgetting that occurs because information or associations stored before or after a given memory hinder the ability to remember it
consolidation failure
any disruption in the consolidation process that prevents LTM from forming- caused from anything that caused a person to lose consciousness such as head trauma, grand mal epileptic seizure or an electroconvulsive shock
retrograde
a loss of memory for experiences that occurred shortly before a loss of consciousness
motivated forgetting
forgetting through suppression or repression in order to protect oneself from material that is painful,frightening,or otherwise unpleasant
repression
completely removing unpleasant memories from one's consciousness so that one is not aware that a painful event occurred
amnesia
a partial or complete loss of memory due to loss of consciousness ,brain damage, or some psychological cause
prospective forgetting
not remembering to carry out some intended action
retrieval failure ( tip of the tongue phenomenon)
not remember something one is certain of knowing
over-learning
practicing or studying material beyond the point where it can be repeated without error
massed practice
learning in one long practice session without resting periods
spaced practice
learning in short practice sessions with rest periods in between
suppression
a person makes a conscious attempt to put a painful,disturbing,anxiety-or guilt provoking memory out of mind,but the person is still aware that the painful event occurred
forgetting
the inability to recall something that you could recall previously
proactive interference
occurs in when information or experiences already stored in long-term memory hinder the ability to remember newer information
retroactive interference
happens when new learning interferes with the ability to remember previously learned information
iconic (visual) memory
seeing an item for less than a second ( blink of an eye)
echoic ( auditory) memory
about two seconds, what someone has spoken briefly echoes back into your head
Miller Magic 7+-2
associated with short term memory and the capacity of number we can hold in our head until the are forgotten
serial recall
information that must be recalled in a specific order ( ABC's or Do Re MI')
free recall
remembering items in any order
Atkinson-Shriffin Model
Sensory Memory, Short-term Memory , and Long-term Memory
Craik- Lockhart Model
this model proposed that maintenance rehearsal involves "shallow" processing and and elaborative rehearsal involves "deep" processing
Mnemonics
device that can greatly improve your capacity to recall
Lev Vygotsky 's Scaffolding
you're building information on what you already know
Socratic method
you start off from what the learner already know and you go on from there ( make associations)
object permanence Jean Piaget
the knowledge that things exist outside our immediate perception
moods
you are more likely to remember happy events when happy and sad events when sad
stress
too much or too little ______ reduces recall ability
shallow processing
encoding based on superficial features of information such as the sound of word
deep processing
encoding based on the meaning of information
Wilder Penfield
stated that experiences leave a permanent record in our brains
environmental context
one is able to recall better when in a similar surrounding, but recognition is not affect