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The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information


The processing of information into the memory system - for example, by extract meaning


The retention of encoded information over time


The process of getting information out of memory stage


The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

sensory memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten

short-term memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

long-term memory

Modern model that views memories as emerging from interconnected neural networks. Specific memories arise from particular activation patterns within these networks


A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

working memory

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

automatic processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

effortful processing

The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage


The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

spacing effect

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

serial position effect

Henry Roediger and Jeffrey Karpicke coined this term. Repeated quizzing of previously studied material

testing effect

Last items are still in working memory, people briefly recall them especially quickly and well

recency effect

After reshift their attention from the last items - their recall is best for the first items

primacy effect

Mental pictures, a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with encoding


Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices


Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically


A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

iconic memory

A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

echoic memory

An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

flashbulb memory

The loss of memory


Retention independent of conscious recollection (also called nondeclarative memory)

implicit memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" (also called declarative memory)

explicit memory

A neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage


The brain region extending out from the rear of the brainstem; plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning


The implicit reactions and skills we learned during infancy reach far into our future, yet as adults we recall nothing (explicitly) of our first three years

infantile amnesia

Anchor points you can use to access the target information when you want to retrieve it later

retrieval cues

A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test


A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on multiple-choice test


A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time


The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory


That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before" Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

deja vu

The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

mood-congruent memory

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information (forward acting)

proactive interference

The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information (backward acting)

retroactive interference

When old and new information compete with each other that interference occurs

positive transfer

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories


Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

misinformation effect

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. Also called source misattribute. Is at the heart of many false memories

source amnesia

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating


A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people


A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to this provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)


A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error-prone-use of heuristics


A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms


A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts wit strategy-based solutions


A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

confirmation bias

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set


A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

mental set

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information

representativeness heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common

availability heuristic

The tendency to more confident than correct-to over estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments


Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were founded has been discredited

belief perseverance

An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning


The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments


Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning


Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

babbling stage

The stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly single words

one-word stage

Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements

two-word stage

Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram - "go car" using mostly nouns and verbs

telegraphic speech

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think

linguistic determinism

Our tendency to recall the last and first items in a list is known as:

serial-position effect

Last year, Pierre and his family went on a camping trip. He has very fond memories of the time they spent cooking over the campfire, looking at the evening stars, and waking to the sound of birds singing. He does NOT recall the messiness of cleaning up after cooking, the cold as they viewed the stars, or how annoyed he found the bird's singing after a sleepless night. This memory phenomenon is known as:

rosy retrospection

__________ revealed that the reports of flashbacks were extremely rare in those patients whose brains were electrically stimulated in different cortical regions. Moreover, the flashbacks appear to have been invented, not relived.


Mr. Nydam suffers amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. But the longer he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the difference in:

explicit memory and implicit memory

James has suffered hippocampal damage from the same near-fatal bus crash. He is not able to remember verbal information, but retains the ability to recall visual designs and locations. His damage is to the

left hippocampus

Which of the following measures of retention is the LEAST sensitive in triggering retrieval?


Which of the following is NOT a measure of retention?


Katrina studied the Russian language in high school. Although not fluent, she did accumulate a large vocabulary. Years later, she decided to go to Russia, so she wanted to brush up on her vocabulary. She picked up the vocabulary much more quickly because:

it is easier to relearn; to learn the material a second time

Events that are forgotten are like books that cannot be found in a library. Which of the following scenarios can BEST be used to explain the encoding problem?

the book was never purchased

During a Spanish language exam, Janice easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning. However, she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates:

proactive interference

Although Ron typically smokes two packs of cigarettes each day, he recalls smoking little more than one pack per day. This poor memory best illustrates:

motivated forgetting

He said that, "If we remembered everything, we should on most occasions be as ill off as if we remembered nothing."


You are discussing the current political situation and forget who the Secretary of State is. You know that it is on the tip-of-your-tongue but you can't remember it. This is also known as:


The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that encoding and retrieval involve

memory construction

Raul is using complete sentences when he talks to his parents with phrases like "Mommy get food." He is at least how old?

24 months

A child will master the past tense for a regular verb like "push" (i.e., "pushed") before she will learn the past tense construction of an irregular verb like "go" (i.e., "went"). This phenomenon is best explained by he language acquisition theory of:


During a lecture, your professor says, "A child learns language as he interacts with caregivers." This generic use of the pronoun "he" is more likely to trigger images of males than of females. This best illustrates the impact of:

language on thinking

Japanese-born Makita moved to Canada when she was 11 years old. Half her classes are taught in English and half in Japanese. Research has shown that non-English speaking children taught in bilingual programs tend to ________________ than if they had gone to an English-only school.

have HIGHER levels of creativity and academic achievement

Rico is a border collie that has a ___________ vocabulary for objects. Researchers assume that he can infer that an unfamiliar sound refers to an object he's never seen before.


Zara is a ten-year-old female chimpanzee. Her zookeepers are trying to train her to communicate in sign language. How successful do you think they will be?

They will not be successful, since early exposure is necessary for gaining language competence.

Critics of ape language research have argued which of the following?

There is little evidence that apes can equal even a three-year-old's ability to order words with proper syntax.

In Atkinson and Shiffrin's three-stage processing model we record information in which order?

sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

The three-stage model of memory developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin has been criticized because it does not take into account:

that some information is processed into long-term memory without our conscious awareness.

___________ is a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, as well as information retrieved from long-term memory.

working memory

It is easier to remember the phrase "what sobriety conceals, alcohol reveals" than the phrase "what sobriety conceals, alcohol unmasks." This best illustrates the value of:

acoustic encoding

Johnny has suffered hippocampal damage from a near-fatal bus crash. He is able to remember verbal information, but has no ability to recall visual designs and locations. He has damage to his:

right hippocampus

Sammie is celebrating his first birthday today. He can say numerous words like da-da, kitty, fish. Chomsky would say that Sammie is able to do this effortlessly because:

he is equipped with a language acquisition device

The linguistic determinism hypothesis could be challenged by the finding that:

people with no word for a certain shape can still perceive that shape accurately.

Your friend has a cockatiel that he has trained to discriminate between pictures of dogs and cats. Your friend shows him a picture of a dog and the bird pecks at a dog symbol on the cage. Your friend shows him a picture of a cat and the bird pecks at a cat symbol. The bird is showing:

that it can form concepts

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