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Boy Scout Second Class Study Items
Terms in this set (58)
What are the seven principles of leave no trace?
- Plan ahead and prepare
- Travel and camp on durable surfaces.
- Dispose of waste properly.
- Leave what your find.
- Minimize Campfire Impacts.
- Respect Wildlife
- Be considerate of other visitors.
In Leave No Trace, what does "Plan Ahead and Prepare" mean?
-Know the regulations and special concerns for the area you'll visit.
-Prepare for extreme weather, hazards, and emergencies.
-Schedule your trip to avoid times of high use.
-Visit in small groups when possible. Consider splitting larger groups into smaller groups.
-Repackage food to minimize waste.
-Use a map and compass to eliminate the use of marking paint, rock cairns or flagging.
In Leave No Trace, what does "Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces" mean?
-Durable surfaces include established trails and campsites, rock, gravel, dry grasses or snow.
-Protect riparian areas by camping at least 200 feet from lakes and streams.
-Good campsites are found, not made. Altering a site is not necessary.
-In popular areas:
Concentrate use on existing trails and
Walk single file in the middle of the trail, even
when wet or muddy.
Keep campsites small. Focus activity in areas
where vegetation is absent.
-In pristine areas:
Disperse use to prevent the creation of
campsites and trails.
Avoid places where impacts are just beginning.
In Leave No Trace, what does "Dispose of Waste Properly" mean?
-Pack it in, pack it out. Inspect your campsite and rest areas for trash or spilled foods. Pack out all trash, leftover food and litter.
-Deposit solid human waste in catholes dug 6 to 8 inches deep, at least 200 feet from water, camp and trails. Cover and disguise the cathole when finished.
-Pack out toilet paper and hygiene products.
-To wash yourself or your dishes, carry water 200 feet away from streams or lakes and use small amounts of biodegradable soap. Scatter strained dishwater.
In Leave No Trace, what does "Leave What You Find" mean?
-Preserve the past: examine, but do not touch cultural or historic structures and artifacts.
-Leave rocks, plants and other natural objects as you find them.
-Avoid introducing or transporting non-native species.
-Do not build structures, furniture, or dig trenches
In Leave No Trace, what does "Minimize Campfire Impacts" mean?
-Campfires can cause lasting impacts to the backcountry. Use a lightweight stove for cooking and enjoy a candle lantern for light.
-Where fires are permitted, use established fire rings, fire pans, or mound fires.
-Keep fires small. Only use sticks from the ground that can be broken by hand.
-Burn all wood and coals to ash, put out campfires completely, then scatter cool ashes.
In Leave No Trace, what does "Respect Wildlife" mean?
-Observe wildlife from a distance. Do not follow or approach them.
-Never feed animals. Feeding wildlife damages their health, alters natural behaviors, and exposes them to predators and other dangers.
-Protect wildlife and your food by storing rations and trash securely.
-Control pets at all times, or leave them at home.
-Avoid wildlife during sensitive times: mating, nesting, raising young, or winter.
In Leave No Trace, what does "Be Considerate of Other Visitors" mean?
-Respect other visitors and protect the quality of their experience.
-Be courteous. Yield to other users on the trail.
-Step to the downhill side of the trail when encountering pack stock.
-Take breaks and camp away from trails and other visitors.
-Let nature's sounds prevail. Avoid loud voices and noises.
What factors should you consider when choosing a patrol site?
1. Environmental Impact
6. Stoves and Campfires
When choosing a patrol site, what does "Environmental Impact" mean?
-Consider the Principles of Outdoor Ethics and Leave No Trace
-Good campsites are found not made
-Return logs, rocks or other items original locations before you leave
When choosing a patrol site, what does "Safety" mean?
-Pitch tents away from dead trees and limbs
-Stay out of gullies where flash floods could occur
-Avoid lone trees, mountain/hill tops, high ridges and other possible targets of lightning.
-Camp away from hiking and game trails (especially in bear country). Game trails can be identified with animal tracks and too narrow or low to be human trails.
When choosing a patrol site, what does "Size" mean?
-Large enough for patrol to set up tents and cook in separate areas.
-Enough room to move around without tripping over tent stakes and guy lines.
When choosing a patrol site, what does "Comfort" mean?
-Breezes (can help chase away mosquitos)
-Seek trees and hillsides that can provide a
-Seek flattest spot possible
-If on a slant, sleep with head uphill
-Consider sun locations
-morning sun can help dry out tent
-afternoon sun can be uncomfortable in
When choosing a patrol site, what does "Water" mean?
-Each scout will need several gallons of water
every day for drinking,. cooking, and cleanup.
-Treat water from streams, rivers, lakes and springs.
-In dry regions, consider how far you may need to
When choosing a patrol site, what does "Stoves and Campfires" mean?
-Use camp stove when fires is not allowed, supplies are scarce, or speed is necessary.
-Stoves are preferred method of cooking to preserve the outdoors.
If a fire is permitted, appropriate and desired:
-Look for a campsite with existing fire ring
-Use only firewood that is dead and down
-Never cut live trees
When choosing a patrol site, what does "Permission" mean?
Well ahead of trip:
-Contact rangers or managers to let them know
you are coming
-Get permits if needed
-Get permission of managers or owners of
private property before camping on their land
Explain when it is appropriate to use a fire for cooking or other purposes and when it would not be appropriate to do so.
Campfires are appropriate if you don't have a stove and:
-You have the time (20-30 mins to burn down to
-They are permitted in the area
-Use established fire rings, pans or mounds
-Keep fires small
-Burn all wood and coals to ash, put out
completely, and scatter the cool ashes.
It's not appropriate if you cannot meet above requirements or if safety (too dry) is a concern.
Explain when it is appropriate to use a lightweight stove and when it is appropriate to use a propane stove.
-Small application (cooking for one or two)
-Hiking or when weight is a concern
-Larger application (cooking for larger group)
-Heavier equipment appropriate for longer
What is "tinder" as it relates to fire building?
Things that catch fire easily and burn fast such as dry pine needles, grasses and shredded bark. It is located at the middle of the fire site.
What is "kindling" as it relates to fire building?
Small dead sticks (smaller than a pencil) usually enough to fill your hat twice that are arranged over the top of the tinder.
What is "fuel" as it relates to fire building?
Thin or thick sticks or branches that you find lying around. Gather them from a wide area rather than removing all of the downed wood from one spot. Place fuel in a teepee formation around the kindling leaving an opening on the side facing the wind so air can reach the fire.
What is the value of good nutrition?
It plays an important role in how healthy you are and energy levels. You should plan a meal that is heavy on a balance of fruits and vegetables, and light on high fat proteins such as hot dogs, sausage and bacon. Also, avoid empty calories from added sugar in drink mixes and many processed foods like sugar sweetened cereal.
What are some considerations for food storage while camping and backpacking?
1. Meats, dairy, and perishable products must be chilled.
2. Other foods need protection from animals.
How should you properly dispose of dishwater?
For short stays, screen out food particles and walk 75 steps from any lake, stream, or river. Spread out over a wide area. Longer stays, with permission, dig a 1 foot wide and 2 foot deep sump with the same considerations above.
At what times would you use the sheet bend knot?
When tying two ropes of different size together.
At what times would you use the bowline knot?
A secure loop around your waist or someone requiring rescue, and it can also be used for securing guy lines for a tent or dining fly.
How does a compass work?
1. Red end of the needle points toward magnetic north.
2. Rotate bezel to align desired degrees to direction of travel arrow.
3. While holding the compass away from interference, put red arrow in the shed (put red Fred in the Shed) which is N on outer bezel.
What are some hazards that you may encounter on a hike?
1. Animals, and insect bites.
2. Getting lost.
3. Cuts, and scrapes.
4. Dehydration, heat stroke, heat exhaustion
5. Hypothermia, frostbite
7. Poisonous plants.
8. Rock slides, volcanoes, and avalanches.
Describe the watch method for determining direction without a compass.
Take a twig and hold it vertical at the side of watch at the end of the hour hand pointer. Rotate your body until the shadow from twig is directly lined up with the hour hand. South is midway between the angle created between the hour hand and the 12 o'clock position on the watch. (Daylight Savings Time use 1 o'clock position) (must be northern hemisphere).
Describe using the shadow stick method to determine direction without a compass.
Push a short straight stick into the ground with it angled toward the sun so it casts no shadow. Wait until is casts a shadow at least 6 inches long. The shadow points east from the stick.
Describe the equal-length shadow method for determining direction without a compass.
In the morning, push a straight 3' stick into ground. Scratch a circle in the ground around the 3' stick whose radius is length of the shadow currently cast from the stick. Mark where the shadow tip touches the circle. In the afternoon, mark where the shadow again touches the circle. A straight line between the two marks is an east-west line with west being the morning mark.
Describe the method for determining direction using the north star method.
Locate north star. Place a stake in ground. Lie on the ground and line up a second stake so it is in a straight line from north star to first stake to second stake. A straight line from second stake to first stake points north.
What star on Orion's belt tracks from due east to due west in the night sky?
The star on the right side of Orion's belt (Mintaka).
What precautions must be taken for a safe swim?
1. Qualified Supervision: (adult 21 or older who is trained in safe swim defense)
2. Personal Health Review: Current and complete health history.
3. Safe Area: Water inspected to be clean, clear and warm with hazards marked.
4. Response Personnel: Lifeguards
5. Lookout: Appointed by supervisor to oversee the entire swim area.
6. Ability Groups: Limit areas to different groups. Non-swimmers, beginners, and swimmers
7. Buddy System: safety team should do a buddy check every 10 minutes
8. Discipline: Scouts know and respect the rules
What is a good mnemonic phrase to remember precautions for a a safe swim?
Supervised Health and Area Personnel Lookout for Groups of Buddies with Discipline.
Why should swimming rescues not be attempted if a reaching rescue is possible?
Swimming rescues should only be attempted if there is no other way to save a person. Reaching, throwing something, or rowing in a boat are preferable choices.
What is the first aid for an object in the eye?
Do not rub it. Remove contact lenses. Blink rapidly. Flush eyes with clean water. Consider pulling upper lid out and down over lower lid to clear object. Consider removing the object with a clean handkerchief. If none of above work, cover the wounded eye with dry, sterile gauze an get to a doctor.
What is the first aid for bite of a warm-blooded animal?
Wash the wound with soap and water and flush it with clean water for several minutes. Control bleeding and cover the wound with a sterile bandage. Seek medical attention.
What is the first aid for puncture wounds from a splinter, nail and fishhook?
Do not flush with water. Scrub with soap and water and apply a sterile bandage. Seek medical attention. Leave large objects, like nails, intact. Wash around them and seek medical attention.
What is the first aid for serious burns (partial thickness or second-degree)?
Place injured area under cool water or apply cool wet cloths. Allow it to dry and cover with sterile gauze. Do not apply butters or creams. Do not break blisters, it improves the chance of infection.
What is the first aid for heat exhaustion?
Victim must lie in a cool, shady place with feet raised. Remove excess clothing. Cool the victims with wet cloths and by fanning. If the victim is alert, let them drink water as the key treatment is rehydration. If situation does not improve, call for medical help.
What is the first aid for shock?
1. Speak to victim in a calm voice.
2. Call for help.
3. Try to eliminate the causes for shock by treating hurry cases. Check airway, restore breathing and circulation, control bleeding, check for poisoning, treat serious wounds.
4. Help the injured person lie down. If not concerned about neck, back, pelvic, hip or leg injuries, raise feet about 12 inches to move blood back to vital organs.
5. Keep victim warm with blankets, coats, etc.
What is the first aid for heatstroke?
This is a true emergency.
1. Move victim to air-conditioned or shade.
2. Loosen tight clothing and apply wet cloths/fan.
3. Wrap ice pack in t-shirt and place under armpits, neck and groin. Consider immersing body in cool bathtub or kiddie pool.
4. Give small amounts of liquid (only if conscious)
What is the first aid for dehydration?
Drink fluids and rest. Avoid caffeine.
Get to air-conditioned or shaded area.
In cold weather, make sure clothing is dry and help victim to warm building or sleeping bag.
What is the first aid for hyperventilation?
1. Talk quietly to the victim and encourage them to breathe slowly (1 breath per 5 seconds).
2. Have them breathe through pursed lips or through nose with one nostril covered.
What is the first aid for hypothermia?
1. Get victim to shelter.
2. Remove wet clothing in exchange for dry warm clothes.
3. Wrap in blankets, sleeping bags, etc.
4. If conscious, drink warm beverages (avoid caffeine)
5. Put T-shirts around warm water bottles and place under armpits and groin area.
6. Monitor condition and call for help.
What should you do for "hurry" cases of stopped breathing, stroke, severe bleeding, and ingested poisoning to survey the victim's condition?
1. Is the spine injured? (if unknown, assume it is)
2. Is the person breathing/heart beating? If they appear to be unconscious, tap them on the shoulder and ask if they are OK. Watch for signs of breathing and life.
3. Is there severe bleeding? Open outer clothing and check for wounds front and back.
4. Are there signs of poisoning? Look for odd appearance/behavior. Look for open pill bottles or suspicious containers.
When the survey is complete, have someone call for help.
What can you do on hikes and campouts to prevent or reduce the occurrence of the injuries described in the first aid section of this Second Class Scout?
1. Be prepared: Do I have the right gear? Is the stove in a safe place? Is everyone clear of the axe? What is under the rock I am going to move?
2. Seek knowledge and skill: Know how to use stoves, wood tools, etc. Wear safety googles and equipment.
3. Know and Accept your Limitations: Don't attempt something you know is risky such as swimming in an unsafe area, climbing trees, shooting rapids you aren't prepared for, etc.
4. Follow the rules: Follow the rules and guidelines established by BSA.
Explain what to do in case of accidents that require emergency response in the back country or home.
Execute the First-Aid Method:
1. Check the scene
2. Call for help
3. Approach safely
4. Provide urgent treatment
5. Prevent further injury
6. Treat for shock
7. Make a more thorough examination
8. Plan a course of action
What constitutes an emergency?
An situation that requires immediate action. It could be weather related, an accident, a fire, an active-shooter at a school, etc. Lives and health are in danger.
What information should you provide to a first responder?
1. Nature of the emergency
2. Location of emergency
3. Description of victims and their illness or injuries
4. Time the injury or illness occurred
5. Treatment the victims have received
6. Number of people with the victims and their skill level with first-aid.
7. Requests for special assistance or equipment.
8. Phone numbers for people that are with victims
Tell how you should respond if you come upon the scene of a vehicular accident.
Treat like other accidents except take consideration to make the scene safe:
-Turn off the engine
-Set the parking brake
-Set up flares or safety cones
-Do not put yourself in danger to secure the scene
What respect is due the United States flag?
The flag is a symbol of America. It stands for the past, present and future of the country. It represents our people, our land, and our way of life. Honoring the flag gives us time to think about what it is to be Americans and to pledge to make our country the best it can be. Face it, and if in uniform, salute the flag when it passes, is raised or lowered. If not in uniform, remove your hat and place your hand over your heart.
What are the three R's of personal safety awareness?
Recognize, Respond, Report
Regarding the three R's of personal safety awareness, what does Recognize mean?
Recognize that anyone could be a molester, and if they do something that makes you feel uncomfortable and asks you not to tell, it is wrong.
Regarding the three R's of personal safety awareness, what does Respond mean?
If someone does something that you believe in your gut is wrong, telling a trusted adult or parent is powerful way to respond. Yell "No!" Resist.
Regarding the three R's of personal safety awareness, what does Report mean?
Report any abuse to a parent or trusted adult. Be a buddy; if you see, suspect, or hear that another youth is experiencing abuse, be brave and tell a trusted adult.
How have you shown your Duty to God?
I try to help other people at all times and love my neighbor as myself. I try to be the first to volunteer if a task needs to be done. I always strive to get more than the minimum number of service hours required for rank.
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