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Human Development and Behavior

Terms in this set (546)

This term refers to feelings, thoughts, memories, and desires of which we are unaware.
Freud was primarily focused on this level of consciousness.
* Each human being has a conscious and an unconscious and much of human behavior is the result of unconscious motivation.
* the unconscious is a dimension of the mind that contains many ideas and experiences that are not readily accessible to the individual and which exert an influence on the individual's behavior.
* The concept of the unconscious allowed Freud to explain many disorders that could not be explained in other ways.
* Experiences/ ideas that create distress in an individual (e.g b/c of the negative response of caretakers to these things) are pushed our of consciousness into the unconscious (i.e. Repression).
* Continued distress may be reflected in psychological or physical dysfunction (e.g a headache or paralysis).
* Treatment involves bringing the repressed thoughts/ experiences into consciousness, helping the pt become aware of the origin of his or her symptoms, assisting the pt in verbally re-living the original situation, and helping the client work through the problem in a constructive way.
* To bring unconscious conflicts to the awareness of pts, Freud experimented with a number of methods, including hypnosis (which her later abandoned), free association and dream interpretation.
* Free Association involves encouraging the pt to express his or her thoughts without editing; the psychoanalyst seeks to identify underlying conflict themes that may shed light on the troubles the pt is experiencing and to share this information with the pt.
* Dream Interpretation was utilized by Freud.
He believed that dreams provided many cues, in symbolic form, to the unconscious conflicts of pts.
In the sleep state, the "censor force" is not as active, providing opportunity for unconscious conflicts and urges to come forward.
Dreams result from the individual's forts to satisfy unacceptable wishes and to solve anxiety- creating problems in the less guarded state associated with sleep.
The analyst interprets the pt's dreams to uncover the nature and source of his or her troubles.
Watson developed an objective way of analyzing behavior that emphasized the observable behavior of individuals rather than their emotional or mental state.
In 1920, he conducted his famous "Little Albert" experiment.
An American psychologist, developed an objective way of analyzing behavior called "Behavrism".
In 1920, he conducted an experimental study using a child who was less than one year old, referred to as "Little Albert".
In this experiment, Watson conditioned the child, using behavioral techniques, to fear a white rat and then generalized that fear to a white rabbit.
Watson's conclusion was the the child had no fear of the rear or the rabbit until he was behaviorally conditioned and therefore, parents could shape the behavior of their children through stimulus- response conditioning.
Watson emphasized the observable behavior of individuals rather than their emotional or mental state, which could not be observed..

John Watson is generally credited with the founding of behaviorism as a movement within psychology.

Watson defined behaviorism as a natural science aimed at the prediction and control of human behavior and held that behavior could be shaped through the selection and application of appropriate stimuli.

Watson carried his behavioral position to an extreme by claiming that given an opportunity to control the environment of children, he could raise children to become whatever he wished them to be.
He positioned reflected an unadulterated behavioral perspective, which explicitly rejected the role of heredity and mentalist in determining human behavior.
It also rejected a search for objective laws that govern learning in an attempt to rid psychology or subjectivism.
In doing so, distinctions between human and other species were effectively eliminated.


The stimulus- response basis of Watson's position was first developed by Ivan Pavlov, whose theory of the conditioned reflex had a profound effect on psychology.
Pavlov showed that an environment stimulus that was not initially sufficient to produce a response could be made sufficient by pairing it with a stimulus that already elected the response.
Through repetition the neutral stimulus would come to produce the response on its own.

Based on the early work of Watson and Pavlov, classical, or respondent conditioning (as its alternately called), provided the theoretical and empirical basis for behavioral psychology.
Piaget's work was heavily influenced by his early interest in both biology and philosophy, and he referred to himself as a "genetic epistemologist".

Through his early work in biology and the observation of mollusk, Piaget concluded that the environment had an important effect on biological development and maturation.
He came to see biological development as a process of adaptation to the environment that could not be explained solely by heredity factors.
He later extended this view to the process of mental development in humans as well, positing that cognitive development was both a process of adaptation as well as an extension of ontogenetic biological development.

Piaget believed that knowledge was constructed through a process in which children physically and/ or mentally act on objects, images, or symbols.

In Piaget's structuralist view, humans develop by attempting to understand and adapt to their environments.
This approach sees cognitive development as essential to moral, ethical, and self- concepts.

Piaget developed a stage model of how children's cognitive abilities develop over time.
Piaget was interested in why children give the particular answers they give in tests of cognitive ability.
He studied children's changing cogntive abilities via the use of qualitative interviews with children and identified two ways human beings learn:

* assimilation
* accommodation

Piaget developed a stage model representing the development of a child's cognitive abilities that develops over time.
Maslow viewed the needs of human beings as hierarchical.
He developed a.pyramid of human needs that ranged from the most basic to higher- order needs.
Maslow was associated with the Humanistic approach, along with Carl Rogers, Fritz Perls, and Eric Berne.
Maslow studied human behavior with regard to basic human needs, mental health, and human potential.
He borrowed ideas from mentors such as Harry Harlow, Alfred Adler, Ruth Benedict, and Max Wertheimer and added his own ideas and observations to the existing body of knowledge.
Maslow viewed the needs of human being as being hierarchical.
He listed these needs as physiological needs (oxygen, water, food, sleep, sex), safety needs (protection, security, structure, predictability), belonging (affection, identification with a group, friendships, intimacy), esteem (respect, recognition, appreciation), self- actualization (developing full potential).

Maslow believed that the most basic needs must be met before higher- order needs could be achieved.
Individuals must be able to have enough food to eat before they can move onto other tasks.
They must have some place to live and feel secure before they can move on to forming relationship and becoming more social.
Friendships, group participation, and love can fully develop only after the other basic needs are met.
Positive self- esteem occurs when indivduals' social experiences result in recognition, feelings of adequacy, and acceptance.
Maslow believed that only about 1-2% of the population ever achieve self- actualization.
Erikson built upon Freudian theories and expanded these concepts to adult development.
He also focused on the ability of the individual to solve problems and to effectively negotiate society.
He identified the psychosocial stages of development from birth to death.
Erikson built upon Freudian theory and added an emphasis on adult development.
He also focused on the ability of the individual to solve problems and to effectively negotiate society.
* Erikson agreed with most of Sigmund Freud's theories and thought that Freud had carefully laid out the development of neurotic personalities; however, Erikson though that. Freud had largely neglected that characteristics and development of healthy personalities.
* Erikson described the healthy personality as one that "actively masters the environment, shows a certain unity of personality, and is able to perceive the world and self correctly."
* Erikson believed that childhood involves the development of ego identity, which refers to the individual's sense of continuity of self over time an the incorporation of the essential patterns and values of the culture into the self.
* Erikson believed, unlike Freud, that development occurs across the lifespan; he identified five stages of childhood (that correspond with Freud's psychosexual stages) and three stages of adulthood.
* At each stage of development the individual is confronted with a different psychosocial crisis that he or she must work through in order to ultimately attain ego identity and a healthy personality.
* Erikson believed that later experiences could alter, but not entirely supplant, what ann individual had been able to achieve at a particular stage of development either in a positive or negative direction.
Simplest example of learned behavior, noting that people have evolved the capacity to make connections between environmental stimuli and behavior, drawing on reinforcement as a means of maintaining the behavior over time.

In line with S-R theorists, he held that the process of respondent conditioning was clearly linked to conditioned stimuli and he concurred wit the idea that some behavior are learned this way.

However, he argued that a different strategy, that of cognitive conditioning, was necessary for people to deal effectively with new environments.

In contrast with respondent conditioning, which focuses on the antecedent of behavior, operant conditioning is concerned with the consequences of behavior, what happens after the behavior occurs..

He proposed that "behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences"
- Things such as food, water, sexual contact, and escape from harm are crucial to survival and any behavioral that brings these things about heads survival value.
- These environmental factors may be said to be a consequence of a behavior rater than antecedent to it, and behavior consequence is likely to be repeated.
- Thus, the behavior is strengthened by its consequences and the consequences itself is the reinforcer for the behavior.

In sum, when behavior results in a consequence that is reinforcing, it is more likely to occur again.

Because operants do not depend on an antecedent stimulus, they are said to be emitted rather than elicited.

The term operant behavior indicates that people operate on their environment to produce desired consequences.

The consequence of a response leads either to a strengthening or a weakening of that response.
Usually, cognitive therapy is a short-term treatment lasting 10-20 sessions.

Therapists are more active than in many other types of treatment for emotional disorders.

A strong therapeutic relationship is encouraged between the clinician and the pt.

This relationship has been termed collaborative empiricism because therapist and pt work together as a team to examine the validity of cognitions and effectiveness of behavior patterns.

In the early phase of cognitive therapy, emphasis is placed on establishing a good working relationship and teaching the pt the basic principles of this treatment approach.

Examples for the pt's current life situation are usually used to demonstrate the effects of automatic thoughts and cognitive errors.

Therapy is most often focused on the "here- and- now" and is directed at specific problems or areas of concern.

Homework assignments are used from the beginning of treatment to reinforce learning and to encourage behavioral change.

The middle portion of therapy is devoted to modifying dysfunctional patterns of information processing and behavior.

Frequently used cognitive interventions include through recording, identifying cognitive errors, examining the evidence and developing rational alternative.

A number of behavioral techniques may also be employed, such as activity scheduling, graded task assignments or desensitization procedures.

The therapist asks frequent questions designed to stimulate a more relational cognitive style.

Also, self-help is encouraged by in Vivo therapeutic exercises and a continuation of homework assignments.

The final phase of treatment is concerned with reinforcing skills learned earlier in therapy and in preparing pts for managing problems on their own.

One of the goals of cognitive therapy is to learn methods that will have positive effects in reducing the risk of relapse.

Thus, many cognitive therapists help their pts prepare for stressful situations that might trigger the return of symptoms.

During the later portions of therapy, more intense work may be needed to revise deeply held schematic.

Change in these underlying attitudes is thought to be an important factor in the long-term effects of cognitive therapy.
Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) is a cognitive-behavior therapy.

Believing individuals have potential for rational thinking, the REBT therapists views self-talk as the source of emotional disturbance, using the ABC framework:
- A- Activating event
- B-belief
- C- consequent affect
- D- disputing of the irrational belief
- E- Effect

Developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s, rational emotive behavior therapy envisions emotional consequences as being created by an individual's belief system rather than by significant causal events.

The individual's intrapersonal and interpersonal life are viewed as the source of growth and happiness.

Each person is born with abilities to create or destroy, to relate or withdraw, to choose or not to choose and to like or dislike, all affected by culture/ environment, family and social group.

By using rational emotive behavior methods, the counselor aims to help the client desire rather than demand, positively changing those aspects the client wants to change and working toward acceptance of what cannot be changed.

According to Ellis, people possess innate capacities for self- preservation/ self- destruction and rationality/ irrationality.

Since the influence of others is strongest during one's early years, an individual's early family environment is of major important.

An individual's perceive, think, emote and behave simultaneously, cognitive, connotative and moronic behaviors coesists.

Yielding both normal and abnormal behaviors, perceptions, thoughts, emotions and actions are key elements in the REBT client/ counselor relationship.

Although remaining accepting of a client, the counselor may need to be critical of that client's negative behaviors, illustrating deficiencies as needed.

If the client remains dependent, the counselor must emphasize independent self- discipline.

Because of its cognitive core, rational emotive behavior therapy does not require a warm relationship between counselor and client.

Employing various methods to help clients achieve basic cognitive changes, rational emotive behavior therapy aims to alter an individual's belief system and values.

Usually, general rational emotive behavior therapy (learning appropriate behaviors) is included in preferential rational emotive behavior therapy (internalizing logic and empirical thinking to counter irrational ideas and behavior).

In this model, the true cause of an individual's problems is viewed as adherence to dogmatic and irrational beliefs.
Therefore, the individual needs to see what difficulties result from those beliefs instead of focusing upon antecedent causes and conditions.

Although problems will not go away by themselves, they can be minimized through rational emotive thinking and actio

The active - directive approach of rational emotive behavior therapy treats the client holistically, with emphasizes on the biological factors of personality development.

In order to help the client replace a self-defeating out look with a realistic and acceptable worldview, and REBT therapist identifies and sternly challenges the client's rational beliefs.
The therapist must attend to:
- process (patterns of emotional relations)
- structure (interlocking triangles)
- no details

The therapist must remain neutral

Bowen did not like to focus on technique, however, he felt therapist should look for fusion within the family by asking questions

Questions should help to foster self-reflection and be directed to family members one at a time

Process question that:
- are designed to slow people down
- diminish anxiety
= start them thinking not just about how other are upsetting them, but about how they participate in interpersonal problems

Couple therapy
- a triangle is formed- avoid taking sides
- couples need to be forced to deal with each other
- the therapist takes an "I" position
- the therapist makes non-reactive observations and statements of opinion
- this technique makes it easier for family members to define themselves and each other

Individual therapy
- goal is to develop the person-to-person relationship
- see family members as people rather than emotionally charged images
- learn to recognize triangles
- de triangle oneself

The therapist should use relationship experiments by asking the client's to try new behaviors and then pay attention to the process

The therapist should teach speaking and listening skills to the family
- coach them how to interrupt arguments and tackle the skill of using the "I-position", teaching family members how to stage their needs and thoughts without over-reacting
- the therapist should empathize that saying what you feel is more productive than commenting on what other family members are doing.

Use genograms to look at the family over three generations to help determine critical turning points in the family emotional process and characteristics of family members and to provide an evolutionary picture of family

Incorporate displacement stories where the therapist narrates an anecdote or recommends movies that can help minimize the defensiveness within a family
This approach stresses the involvement of the therapist with the family

Family mapping and chronologies

Create new meaning and liberate family members

Encourage open communication, where individuals are allowed to honestly report their opinions and perceptions

Help family members construct a mind, soul and body triad as a current basis of self- identity

The intergenerational Model of Family reconstruction
- a psycho-dramatic reenactment of a significant event used to help unlock the point from which the dysfunctional patterns stem

Touch or connection to domesticate empahty/ compassion and "not-so-friendly" touch

Co-therapy to balance out transference and prevent being induced (drawn into families)

Self as catalyst of change:
* don't leave the family to work it out
* encourage them to share what they are feeling with each other when. you see something going on inside one of them

Family sculpting:
* can be used to demonstrate current or past family interactions by having family members rearrange each other's positions
* graphic means of portraying each person's perceptions of the family and his/ her place in it
* Virginia Satir uses ropes and blindfolds to dramatize constructing roles families get trapped in

Family puppet interviews:
* make up a story using puppets as a vehicle for highlighting conflicts and alliances
* this can be difficult to use; resistance is often found as adults struggle to tell a story

Family art therapy:
* produce a series of drawings
* joking family scribble- each person makes a quick scribble and everyone incorporates their own
* conjoint family drawings- warm families up and free them to express themselves

Draw a picture of how you see yourself as a family:
* reflect on disclosure of perceptions that haven't been discussed
* may stimulate person drawing to realize something once unrealized

Gestalt therapy techniques
* empty chair
* speak to another or yo self in an opposing chair

Role playing:
* experience, in order to be real, must be brought in life in the present
* recollection of past events and considerations and hoped for or feared future events can be immediate by role-playing
Externalize the problem: the person is not the problem
- narrative therapists begin by asking clients to tell their problem- saturated story
- make the destructive effects apparent
- ask about the problem's effect, not its causes, which usually leads to attribution of blame
- map the influence of problem
- problems are always personified
- portrayed as unwelcome invaders that try to demonstrate people's lives
- "what feeds the problem?"
- "who benefits from it?"
- by standing up to the problem and not allowing it to affect them, the client cuts off the problem's "life support system"

Ask the question: "what's in charge, the person or the problem?"
- relative influence questions help explore how the problem has managed to disrupt or dominate the family vs. how much they have been able to control it.

Read between the lines
- listen for unique outcomes when the client was able to avoid the problem's effects
- ask for elaboration on how that was done

Re-author the whole story
- use evidence of competence relative to the problem from the client's history to start a new narrative regarding what a kind person the client is

Reinforce the new story
- find an audience to support the client's progress in constructing new stories for themselves
- have the client contact people from their past who can authenticate new story
- letter writing from the therapist may help reinforce the new story
- at the end of the session, summarize what happened, using externalizing language and emphasize any unique outcomes

Deconstruct destructive cultural assumptions
- explore where client's get their beliefs and whether he they accept them because of culture or if they truly believe them
- challenge all assumptions
The MRI Communications Model along with ideas from strategic theorists Bateson, Walzlwick and Haley, had a major impact on the development of the Milan Systemic Model.

Mara Selvini-Palazzoli was responsible for gathering a team of psychiatrists Luigi Boscolo, Gianfranco Cecchin and Giulina Prata who developed this system of family therapy.

In 1971, they founded the center for study of the Family in Milan, Italy.


Bateson's u se of cybernetics and circular questions were major influences.

The Milan model utilized a team approach that included interviews and observers and team consultation.
This initial pulsation so targeted by this model were schizophrenic and anorexic families.

The Milan approach would look at both the structural (power struggles and games) and functional (helping a parent to win) models in the problem.

The Milan group believed families could determine their own normal development and functioning and reorganize themselves as necessary to achieve this, if the therapists assisted by raising questions that facilitated the family membrers' examination of themselves.

In the original Milan Therapy model, the family was seen once a month for 10 sessions.

With differing ideas, in the 1970s and 1980s, the Millan group began to separate from one another due to diverse ideas about the nature of therapy.
The split in 1980 and went divergent ways but maintained similar principles.

The Milan group's focus on cognitive change rather than behavioral change set the stage for movements like the narrative and the constructivist movements.

Currently, the original Milan Systemic Model seems to have disappeared.
Most families came to therapy with a paradoxical request to stay the same while the problem member of the family was cured.

For one person in the family system to make a change meant the whole system would change.

Rituals could "cut through the knots of a game" in the family.

A multidimensional model included both present oriented focus on historical perspective.

Reality is always changing: reality of one person changes over time depending upon how the environment responds to it.

Problems should be reframed in social terms rather than being rooted in individual.

Change is attributed to "perturbances", or disturbances in the family system itself, therefore they took no credit in progress toward health.

New meanings should be introduced into a family system to change behavior and assist them in reframing or re-writing the perception of a behavior so that it was no longer seen as a problem.

Their multidimensional model in which the team was both in the therapy room and observing the therapy room.

Rituals are the most fundamental of social phenomena and relate directly to mental phenomena.

The Milan associates interviewed families about their history in order to find evidence of how the children's symptoms became necessary for the system.

They mainly used hypotheses to come up with possible reasons for why symptoms become necessary in the family system.

The hypotheses usually involved and related to the family alliances or coalitions in the system.

They felt families developed symptoms to protest one or more family members.

According to the Milan group, developing symptoms is another way in which a family can maintain the network of family alliances.

In relation to what constitutes normal family development, they were more concerned with promoting a change in perception or cognition rather than a behavioral change.
A technique used to describe a specific act for family members to perform that is designated to change the family system's rules.

According to the Milan Model, ritual would do the following:
- Have family members examine and break the rigid and dysfunctional rules that perpetuate problems in the system. One of the benefits of interrupting rigid sequences is that the family members are forced to stop and interact in different ways and react differently to each other.
- Dramatize positive connotations.
- Even though the parents adhere to the injunction of secrecy and therefore don't say anything about the session, they would convey non-verbal messages to the family and thereby introduce new patterns of communication.

Therapists usually instructed the family members to take actions that exaggerated a rigid family rule.

The Milan group often used an odd and even day's schedule when assigning homework rituals.
The purpose of using odd and even days schedules of rituals is to interrupt family's riding sequences.
Example: Every other day the father of the family is in charge and every other day the mother is in charge. In the Milan Systemic approach, this is an example of using odd and even day schedules to interrupt rigid sequences.

Example: A therapist tells an enmeshed family to spend 2 hours together every Erving talking about their feelings and love for one another. In the Milan Systemic Model, the is an example of a family ritual.

Example: A family is instructed to thank the identified patient every day for sacrificing for the family and having the problem. In the Millan mode, this is an example of a family ritual used to dramatize a positive connotation.
- Differentiation of Self- Ego Strength:
Differentiation is the process of freeing oneself from one's family.
Realizing one's own involvement in problematic relationship systems as opposed in blaming others, while still being able to be emotionally related to members.
The capacity to think and reflect, instead of responding automatically.
The ability to think and act wisely in the face of anxiety.

- Triangulation:
Anxiety is a major influence.
The family member with the least differentiation (the most vulnerable) will often be the person most likely to get triangulated within the family.
A two-person system is unstable because it tolerates little tension before involving a third person.
Two people in a conflict will draw in a third person to try to fix the problem or take sides.
A triangle allows the tension to spread, this lets off steam, but freezes conflict in place.
A anxiety increases, people experience a greater need for emotional triangles.

- Nuclear Family Emotional System:
Undifferentiated family ego mass.
FUSION- families that are emotionally stuck together.
Especially notice in schizophrenic families.
Existing family emotional patterns passed on to each generation.
They can include:
- overt conflict
- physical or emotional dysfunction in one spouse
- reactive emotional distance and projection of problems onto one or more of the children.
The parents focuses on a child out of fear that something is wrong with the child.
The parent interprets the child's behavior as confirming the fear.
The parent treats the child as if something is really wrong with the child.

- Emotional Cutoff:
The way people manage anxiety between generations.
People manage their unresolved emotional issues with parents, siblings and other family members by reducing or totally cutting off emotional contact with them.
The greater the emotional fusion between parents and children, the greater the likelihood of a cutoff.
People may believe being cut off from the family has solved their issues; however, the problems are dormant and not resolved.

- Multigenerational Transmission Process:
The way family emotional process are transferred and maintained over several generations.
Passing chronic anxiety from generation to generation.

Sibling Position:
The order of birth on the sibling totem pole.
People who grow up in the same sibling position predictably have important common characteristics.
For example:
- oldest children tend to gravitate to leadership positions.
- youngest children often prefer to be followers.
Each child has a certain position in the family, which may make him/ her more or less likely to fit some projection of the family.

- Societal Emotional Process:
The effects of social expectations about classes, ethnic groups, race, gender, sexual orientation, etc. on the family.
Used early in the field of family therapy to acknowledge the influences of societal pressures/ influences.
Later used by feminist Rowenins Monica McGoldrick and Betty Carter, who added gender and ethnicity.
The therapist must attend to:
- process (patterns of emotional relations)
- structure (interlocking triangles)
- no details

The therapist must remain neutral

Bowen did not like to focus on technique; however, he felt therapist should look for fusion within the family by asking questions.

Questions should help to foster self- reflection and be directed to family members one at a time.

Process questions that:
- are designed to slow people down
- diminish anxiety
- start them thinking not just about how others are upsetting them, but about how they participate in interpersonal problems.

Couples therapy
A triangle is formed, avoid taking sides
Couples need to be forced to deal with each other
The therapist takes an "I" position
The therapist makes non-reactive observations and statements of opinion
This technique makes it easier for family members to define themselves and each other.

Individual therapy
Goal is to develop the person-to-person relationship
See family members are people rather than emotionally charged images.
Learn to recognize triangles.
Detriangle onself

The therapist should use relationship experiments by asking the clients to try new behaviors and they pay attention to the processes.

The therapist should teach speaking and listening skills to the family.
Coach them how to interrupt arguments and tackle the skill of using the "I Position", teaching family members how to stage their needs and thoughts without over reaching.
The therapist should emphasize that saying what you feel is more predictive than commenting on what other family members are doing.

Use genograms to look at the family over three generations to help determine critical Turing points in the family emotional process and characteristics of family members and to provide an evolutionary picture of family.

Incorporate displacement stories where the therapist narrates an anecdote or recommends movies that can help minimize the defensiveness within a family.
Mahler studied infant-mother interaction and the process through which the infant individuates from the mother.
Much of her work focused on object relations, which is the process by which the infant struggles, over the first few years, to differentiate between self and non-self (other).
This process reflects the early organization of the ego.

The nature of the early relationship with the child's mother becomes the pattern for future relationships.

Mahler's primary focus was on the differentiation of "self" and "other" mental images over the first three years, and the impact of this process on personality.

Her theoretical model was influenced by Bowlby, Piaget, and Spitz.

Mahler believed that Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorders might have their origins in failure during the Rapproachment phase.

Mahler proposed a stage-based developmental theory:
Stage 1: Normal Autism (birth- 1 month of age): The infant's sense of self is fragmented at birth and there is little evidence that the child is aware of others.
During this stage the child primarily responds to internal stimuli.
This stage represents the initial process of differentiating between pleasant and unpleasant feelings.
Mahler later abandoned this phase, based on new findings from her infant research.
However, this phase still appears in many books on her theories.

Stage 2: Symbiosis or Normal Symbiotic (1-4 months of age): Symbiosis refers to attachment of the infant to the mother or primary caregiver.
The child perceives an object, such as the mother, as a source of gratification.
The child is now aware of his or her mother but there is not a sense of individuality.
The infant and the mother are one and there is a barrier between them and the rest of the world.
Mahler identified the importance of a good match between the mother and infant (i.e the mother is generally able to recognize and gratify the infant's needs).
According to Mahler, severe deprivation in this stage leads to symbiotic psychosis (ie. a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality, which causes deterioration of normal social functioning).

Stage 3: Separation- Individuation (4-8 months through 36 months of age): Individuation refers to the development of the infant's ego, sense of identity, and cognitive abilities.
Mahler explains how a child who is only a few months old breaks out of an "autistic shell" into the world with human connections.
This process is divided into substages, each with its own onset, outcomes, and risks.
Disruptions in the fundamental process of separation-individuation can result in a disturbance in the ability to maintain a reliable sense of individual identity in adulthood.
The following four substages are listed chronologically; however, development of a certain skill may occur of a given substage:

-Differentiation from Mother/ Hatching (4-8 months of age): This substage is sometimes described as "hatching from the symbiotic partner".
The child recognizes that he or she is separate from his or her mother, which results in separation anxiety in the infant.

- Practicing (8-15 months of age): This substage is characterized by the infant's efforts at autonomous function; the infant once again becomes close to the mother.
The child realizes that her physical mobility demonstrates psychic separateness from her mother.
The toddler may become tentative, wanting her mother to be in sight so that, through eye contact and action, she can explore her world.
The risk is that the mother will misread this need and respond with impatience or unavailability.
This can lead to an anxious fear of abandonment in the toddler.
Subsequently, a basic "mood predisposition" may established at this point.

- Achievement of Individuality (24-36 months through 4 years of age): The mother is now seen as separate.
The child's internalization of the integrated image of the mother (good and bad representations) results in object constancy (attachment is retained in the face of inconsistency in satisfaction of the child's needs, both good and bad).
The child perceives others as both separate and relational.
The final outcome is an individual identity for the child.
Jean Piaget's conclusions from his work with children continue to exert the most lasting influence on cognitive development theory.

In Piaget's structuralist view, human develop by attempting to understanding and adapt to their environments.

This approach sees cognitive development as essential to moral, ethical, and self-concepts.

Piaget presented four Cognitive Developmental Stages of experience and interaction with the environment:
- Sensorimotor Stage (birth to two years):
Knowledge gained through active interaction with the environment.
Beginning awareness of cause and effect relationships.
Learning objects exist even when not in view.
Crude imitation of actions of others.

- Pre-operational Stage (ages two to six years)
Initially very egocentric
Development of language and mental representations
Classification of objects by a single characteristic at a time.

- Concrete operations stage (ages six to 12 years)
Understanding of conservation of volume, length, etc.
Organization of objects into ordered categories.
Comprehensions of rational terms (ie. bigger than, above)
Beginning use of simple logic

- Formal operations (over 12 years of age)
Thinking becomes abstract and symbolic
Development of reasoning skills and a sense of hypothetical concept
Stages: applied to all individual and indicates a qualitative difference:
- object permance
- egocentrism
- conservation
- abstract thinking
- concentration

Adaption involve:
- Assimilation: adding new material/information to an existing schema
- Accommodation: altering or revising an existing schema in light of new information
- Equilibration: keeping balance by creating new concepts

Assimilation vs. Accommodation (Equilibration)
- Object Permanence: the appreciation that an object no longer in view can still exist and may reappear later.
- Schema: A system of organized general knowledge stored in longer-term memory that guides that encoding and retrieval of information.

Optimistically expanding Piaget's work, Lawrence Kohlerg included formation of a sense of justice in three levels:
- Pre-conventional: acting from selfish rather than social motives
- Conventional: acting according to social norms
- Post-conventional: acting on moral, legal and ethical principles, irrespective or temporary social rules

Kohlbeg also proposed three stages of gender development:
- Gender Labeling: the child has reached a point where he/she can recognize boy-ness or girl-ness in self and others, but does not understand it to be static over time.
- Gender Stability: the child now understand that his/her gender is stable and that he/she will grow up to be a daddy or mommy.
The static aspect of gender is that gender will not change with time no matter what appearance or activity choices are made.
This concept is not fully understood.
- Gender Constancy: the child now has a full understanding of the unchanging nature of gender over time and across situations.

There are seven stages and two traditions in Jane Loveinger's theory of Ego Development.
Defined according to the character growth, ways of relating to others thinking and conscious concerns, they progress as follow:
- pre-social/symbiotic
- impulsive
- self-protective
- conformist conscientious/conformist
- conscientious individualistic
- autonomous
- integrated

Working with college student, William Perry devised three stages of intellectual and Ethical Development:
- Dualism- seeking things in terms of black and white
- relativism- abstract thinking lading to a rejection of easy aboslutes
- commitment- taking personal responsibility for dealing with the right/wrong dichotomy

Robert Kegan saw people involved in a continuing cognitive process that lasts a lifetime and promotes personal growth by assigning sense and meaning to things and events.
This also is a stage theory, and its stages are:
- incorporative
- impulsive
- imperial
- instittional
- interindividual
Standing apart form psychoanalysis, the field of personality psychology was developed in the 1930s by Harvard theorists Michael Murray and Gordon Allport, with additional work by Raymond Cattell and others.

Catell created a list of 171 personality traits which, factored and correlated, who 16 ways in which personality can diverge.

Surface traits or observable behaviors give evidence of deeper source traits measurable with the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.

Since limited empirical confirmation is available, Cattell's claim to pinpoint basic personality with this method is not universally accepted.

Founded more on uncontrolled observation than on scientific method, personality theories tend toward the philosophical.

Major Approaches to Personality Theory:
- trait
- psychoanalytic
- humanisitc
= cognitive

According to Murray, two kinds of needs, basic (primary needs) and learned (secondary needs), shape personality.
External events either aid or block fulfillment of needs.
Needs and environmental press combine to create thema.
Two assessments based on Murrary's work are the Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT) and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS).

The word association technique and the concept of introversion/extroversion are contributions demonstrating Carl Jung's lasting influence on personalty assessment
Using free associative responses to a list of a hundred words, Jung presented four structural aspects, typing personality according to the following:
- introversion/extroversion
- sensing/intuition
- thinking/feeling
- judgement/perception

Used in education, counseling and research, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is grounded in Jung's early work.

Proposing a lifetime progression through stages of personality development, Sullivan viewed social interactions as showing a dynamic self, influenced by expectations of the outside world.
When opposing personifications (senses of the self and of others) evolve and coexist, a person must search for balance between the "bad" and "good" selves.
In what is perhaps one of Bandura's most well known studies is observational learning, a group of children were shown a video of a young women physically and verbally abusing a bolo doll, a 5-foot tall blow-up punching bag.
The woman yelled, kicked and beat the doll with a hammer while the children watched.
After viewing the video, the children were left in a playroom with a bolo doll and several small hammers while observers watched through a two-way mirror in the next room.
As he predicted, the children imitated the behaviors they had witnessed in the video-beating, hammering and yelling aggressively at the doll.
After a series of experimental variations, Bandura outlined several factors that lead children to model behaviors of others.
Collectively these came to be known as Bandura's Social-Learning Theory.

Bandura also developed a theory of self-regulation, which states we have the ability to control our behavior through a series of three main steps:
- Self-observation: paying close attention to a specific behavior, how frequently it occurs, under what circumstances, etc.
- Self-judgement: comparing ourselves with a standard either self-imposed or set by society, and then creating a goal for ourselves based on that standard.
E.G vowing to exercise three days per week.
- Self- response: rewarding ourselves each time we meet or surpass our standard, and punishing ourselves any time we don't.

Over time, our cumulative successes and/or failures lead us to develop what is know as a self-concept.
A person who has had a life of successes probably has a favorable self-concept, whereas a person who has failed to meet his/her standards and constantly punishes himself/herself probably has a poor self-concept.

Bandura also warned against too much self-punishment, outlining three problems that arise from such an approach:
- compensation: a person may develop a superiority complex
- inactivity: a person may become depressed, apathetic, and bored.
- escape: a person may seek to escape his/her problems through television, drinking, drugs, or suicide.
Maturation is the development of a clear identity and power of choice, it includes the ability to communicate with others.
Coping skills increase with self-esteem.

The components of self-esteem are security, belonging, competence, direction, and selfhood.
To build self-esteem and increase communication, family roles need to be identified and this knowledge used to build relationships.
One intervention is a family life chronology (three generations).

Two types of worldviews: Threat and Reward (with rigid rules, this type of view divides people into rule-makers and rule-followers) vs. Seed (each person has the innate potential for growth).

Family reconstruction is an exercise in which roles in significant family historical events are examined to determine what implicit premises guide perceptions and interactions.
It includes an analysis of how family members handle differences.

Self-manifestation (congruence) analysis seeks to determine what models have impacted a person from early life onward.
Experience and ability to make choices are expanded.

Being a sculpting (group posture) technique, a parts party builds awareness and exercises both mind and body.
Assets are labeled.
Drama, metaphor, art and stories are used.

Different perspectives helps explain different theories of human growth and development.
These approaches include behavioral, organismic, maturational, strucutral, and interactional.

Behavioral:
Similar to viewing life as a television melodrama, this worldview considers a person's actions to be mostly reaction to environmental factors.
Since external circumstances control behavior and the concept of being the master of one's fate is an illusion, social and other environmental influences are paramount..
Cognitive, mind and biology are minimized.

Maturational:
Growth and differentiation are bounded, but not caused by environmental circumstances.

Structural:
A person creates his/her own development by mindfully interacting with the environment.
Maturity and both social and physical influences complement these choices.

Interactional:
Development is marked by changes in an ever-changing world.
A contextual view, the interactional process sees people (neither gods nor pawns) reacting to and acting upon changing biological, social, cultural, historical, and other environmental contexts.
Rather than providing congruity, achievement increases challenge.
Erikson considered development of a stable identity to be the primary development task of adolescents and viewed adolescence as a period of "psychosocial moratorium" during which an individual experiments with different roles before choosing one.

James Marcia distinguished Four Identity States or patterns that characterized adolescence:
- Identity diffusion: the adolescent has not yet experienced an identity crisis, explored alternative or committed to an identity.
- Identity foreclosure: when an adolescent has not experienced a crisis but has adopted an identity (occupation, ideology) imposed by others, identity foreclosure has occurred
- Identity moratorium: a period marked by confusion, discontent and rebellion, identity moratorium occurs when an adolescent experiences an identity crisis and is actively exploring alternative identities.
- Identity achieved: the identity crisis has been resolved by evaluation of alternatives and commitment to an identity. .

Stanley Hall (1904) identified adolescence as a period of "storm and stress" involving emotional maladjustment and instability.
Research has not ruled this out.
About 10% to 20% of adolescents experience distress, a rate similar to the adult population.
More likely to experience depression, drug use and delinquency or to attempt suicide then preteens, adolescents do experience great life changes.
Parents who provide their teens with support and reassurance while allowing them to establish their own views promote the strongest sense of personal identity.
Egocentrism re-emerges during the teen y ears and involves confusion about personal thoughts and the thoughts of others.
Such egocentrism is generally manifested in two phenomena:
-Accounting for their acute sense of self-consciousness, adolescents frequently feel they are on stage.
For example, a teenage girl who imagines everyone is staring at the pimple on her nose.
- A strong belief in the uniqueness of one's own experiences, the personal fable leads to a sense of immortality.
The diagnosis typically assigned to clients and families dealing with divorce is depression.
The symptoms are usually the same for children, adolescents and adults.

Typical Symptoms of Depression:
- persistent sadness
- inability to enjoy favorite activities
- increased irritablity
- physical problems such as headaches and stomach aches
- poor school performance
- poor work performance
- persistent boredome
- low energey
- poor concentration
- changes in eating and/or sleeping patterns

Short-Term Objectives:
- develop therapeutic rapport
- identify feelings and anxieties about divorce
- increase social contacts and create a support system
- develop coping skills to deal with depressive thoughts and feelings
- discuss the feelings about the loss of the family relationship as it was
- help the client adapt to new situations

Long-Term Treatment Goals for Treating Depression Due to Divorce:
- improve each individual's mood and stability
- prevent further episodes of depression
- help the client become well established in a new family living arrangement

Interventions:
- verbal therapy: to discuss feelings
- play/art therapy:
* pair emotions and colors
* draw different representations of emotions symbolically
* use clay or other materials to recreate story
* use puppets to tell a story
* board games designed to discuss feelings
- Writing
* list positive and negative emotions or changes
* journal their feelings
* unsent letters: write letters explaining your feelings; knowing they wont be sent allows you more freedom to vent
- parents
* teach parents about typical emotional reactions they will see in their children and how to handle them
* encourage parents to make teachers aware of the stuation
* have parents engage in an activity with the children each week teach dyadic techniques
Consider a Therapy Contract:
- Individualized to fit the client's needs, based on the requirements of the foundation or based on a court order.
- Frequency must be determined prior to counseling process.
Many clients will only participate for court minimum requirements.
- Specific confidentiality contract and explanation of confidentiality limitations is essential.

Be careful with alliance building:
- Any alliance can be interpreted as choosing sides, one family member over another.
- Extra effort is necessary to establish a multipart alliance in which the therapist is experienced as caring, but also fair.
- The therapist must be honest, provide direct feedback about the behavior occurring, but reframe changes he/she is hoping for in the most positive light.
- Problematic behaviors related to the conflict are directly confronted, but the positive intent of each client is always underscored.

Making an assessment:
- Begin with a form of evaluation that involves:
*separate meetings with each parent and children.
With or without new spouses, depending on the issues involved.
* A review of court records and other relevant reports available.
* Consultations with other therapists involved.
They might offer insight you missed.
- Identify family strengths and weaknesses.

Treatment Plan:
- Should include not only the traditional goals but also:
* format of future sessions
What time, focused on what issues.
* Who will participate
In what combinations.
- Goal setting
* The main goal is to reduce the damaging aspects of custody disputes, such as:
- high conflict- leads ot anger and confuses the issues
- triangulation- two ganging up against the one
- broken family structure
- lack of safety
- impact of daily functioning
The idea of adoption has changed over the last few decades, from a last resort to a natural option in creating a family.
With the ease of travel, many adoptions are from outside the US, blending not only a new family but also cultures and races as well.
Known as transracial and transcultural adoption.
Adoption occurs for may reasons:
- to wish to expand families
- to provide a home for children in need
- kinship adoption may include grandparents adopting the children of their children
- as are gay and lesbian couples
There are many decision for people who adopt:
if the choice is motivated by infertility, many issues can accompany the choice:
-feelings of loss of inadequacy because they are unable to reproduce
- feelings of giving up on a dream of having their own child by natural means
- anxiety and fear about making this decision to adopt a child someone else created
- stress related to procedures of adoption, how society might impact their decision or how their families and support systems will react
The paper work alone can be overwhelming.
Stress may even affect a marriage if couples have different coping skills or if one is more ready to adopt than the other.

Foster children:
Foster children may be another route considered and has its own problems.
Being able to provide the appropriate medical, emotional, or academic support for foster children with special needs.
Being prepared to suffer the potential loss of the relationship when the child is returned to his/her home or adopted by another family.
Stress of dealing with the child's biological parents and family.

Parenting Adopted Children Offers Some Challenges:
You should address the child's questions about his/her adoption and about birth parents and be able to prepare the child for questions by others about his/her adoption.
Any parent, but especially adoptive parents, must be aware of changes in behaviors that may indicate an emotional struggle:
- social withdrawal, not wanting to play with others
- inattentiveness that affects productivity at home or school
- anger outburst and temper tantrusm
- attachment anxiety or fear of being alone
- changes in eating or sleeping patterns

The Role of the Family Therapist:
The therapist can help the family understand the impact of adoption on the family and the child.
The therapist can work with the child, who may have a hard time talking to the adoptive parents about the adoption, fearing it might show a sign of disloyalty or being unappreciative.
The therapist can help normalize the child's feelings of wanting to learn about his/her biological parents and the reasons why he/she was put up for adoption.
The therapist should also work with the biological children in the family, giving them a place to explore their feelings about the adoption.
With the adjustment to new relationships, the family therapist can ensure positive communication while creating appropriate boundaries to benefit the children and strengthen the family.

Adoption and its Impact on the Birth Parents:
Most parents struggle with the decision to place the child up for adoption.
Those who decide to do so begin to plan for a great loss in their own lives with the hop that placing the child for adoption will result in a better life for their baby and for themselves.

Parents will go through grieving and loss of the child.
The sense of loss is usually intense and lengthy.
Parents grieve not only the actual loss of the child, but also the loss of immediate life plans since all plans revolved around that child.
Trauma can be impacted by:
- the process
- lack of support from family and friends
- the behavior of the adoption agency
- level of communication with the adopting family
Clients often express feeling of numbness, shock and denial, as well as grief.

Parents need to normalize these as typical reactions to loss, otherwise they find an extra struggle by adding a sense of privacy around it, which may limit help from support systems such as other family members, who may not be informed.
Due to the secrecy, the loss often lacks typical cultural rituals or ceremonies necessary to gain closure.

Grieving is not just for the child, but losses that accompany it:
- loss of parenting role
- feelings of loss may reoccur during holidays, anniversaries or birthday
- stress of pregnancy and adoption so close after may take a toll on the couple's relationship
- if the parent is young:
* this may cause a significant issue in future parental relationships
* will they ever be ready to have a child?
* also, they may have to drop out of school

The guilt and shame can weight the parent down immeasurably.
Societal values often show a lock of understanding over the circumstances leading up to the adoption.
Culturally, there is still an association of shame with unplanned pregnancy.
The parent may express feelings of unworthiness.
Clients who discuss their feelings with supportive friends, family or counselors may more easily come to terms with their decision over time and be able to integrate the experience into their lives in a healthy way.

There also may be identity issues.
Client often ask themselves if they even are "parents".
Some mothers may experience a sense of incompleteness after giving birth.
Parental status is not acknowledged by society, family or friends for those who give up children for adoption.
The issue of being involved in the child's life and how to integrate with the adoptive family is an important one.

The long term issues must be dealt with.
Feelings about the adoption may be life long, but varying in intensity.
Some of the factors that have been found to be associated with long-standing grief include:
- a birth mother's feeling that she was pressured into placing her child for adoption against her will
- feelings of guilt and shame regarding the placement
- lack of opportunity to express her feelings about the placement
For some birth parents, the ability to establish a successful marriage or long-term relationship may depend upon the openness with which they can discuss their past experiences of birth and adoption placement.
Some birth parents never tell their spouses or subsequent children of the child they gave up.
A realistic understanding of death and dying develops during childhood and is related to both cognitive level and experience.
At ages 3-4, children do not understand that death is irreversible, they believe the dead retain some capacities they had while they were alive.
By ages 5-9, children know death is universal but don't personalize it.
By age 10, children generally understand that the end of life is a biological process.
Television seems to be speeding this development.
Some five-year-olds have an accurate understanding of death.

Seeming to be greatest among those of middle age, anxiety about death is a personality function and relates to age.
Anxiety about death is lowest among well-adjusted people, whose lives are marked by high self-esteem and a sense of mastery and purpose.

Kubler-Ross's Five Stages of Grief (Mnemonic:DAB-DA)
- Stage one- Denial: "Taht did not happened, "stop joking"
- Stage two- anger: "There is no God", "This should not have happened", "Why me?"
- Stage three- bargaining: "God, I promise I will never.... again if you bring (him/her) back".
- Stage four: Depression: "Why did this happen? It's not fair", "How can I g on?", Silent suffering and grief are characteristics of stage four.
- Stage Five- Acceptance: "Things happen for a reason. I need to find the reason.", "It's OK". This stage is accompanied by a sense of peace. Resolution: "I am OK... would want me to go on."

It has been suggested the experiencing any loss can lead to this series of emotions.,