Stereotyping and prejudice
Terms in this set (71)
What are in and out groups?
beliefs about traits and behaviors of members of a social group
What are two characteristics of stereotypes
1. Cognitive in nature (thought based), 2. can be positive or negative
What are the two types of stereotypes?
Descriptive stereotypes- indicate what group members do (CEOS are male, teachers are female)
• Prescriptive stereotypes- indicates what group members should do or be like. They often create situations that lead to descriptive stereotypes
attitudes towards members of a social group
What are two characteristics of prejudice?
1.affective in nature (emotion based), 2. can be positive, negative or mixed
treating some people differently than others because of membership to a certain group
What are two characteristics of discrimination?
• Characteristics- action based (behavioral in nature), can be anywhere on continuum from passive to active (ignoring to violence)
What are the four types of discrimination?
• Interpersonal- person to person discrimination
• Organizational- when rules or policies of an organization have a discriminatory effect. Not always intentional
• Institutional- when the norms or practices of a social institution have disparate impacts on different groups. Usually intentional. Example: separate but equal
• Cultural- when one group retains the power to define what is culturally valued. Example, what is considered attractive.
What is group privilege?
unearned cultural favor due to membership in certain social groups
What are two specific ways that this privilege can manifest?
• It is easier for in groups to find role models
• Dominant behavior seems normal and is taken for granted. Ex: white people often don't think about their race as much
What are the five steps of the scientific method?
o Hypothesis, operationalize, measurement, evaluate, review/replicate
What is a hypothesis?
a statement about the relationship of at least two concepts (variables)
What is operationalizing
turning theoretical variables into things that can be measured
What is the relationship between hypothetical constructs and operational definitions? Give an example of each.
o Hypothetical constructs- abstract concepts studied in research. Not specific (Stereotypes as a concept)
o Operational definitions- concrete
• What are the three ways to gather samples of participants? Which is the best? Which is most commonly used?
o Random sample- everyone in the population has an equal chance of participating
o Probability sample- sample reflects the characteristics of the population. EX: 50% of population is from Arkansas, so 50% of sample is too
o Sample of convenience- sample includes people who can easily be recruited. May not represent the group as a whole
• Describe the characteristics of observational research
What are different methods of conducting observational research?
o Observational method- used to describe the nature of a phenomenon. EX: what is it like to live in Martin
• Ethnographic research- observing an interviewing people to understand the experience
• Content analysis- studying images and written materials to see how frequently something occurs
• Natural observation- you observe separately
• Participant observation- you become part of the group you are trying to observe
• Archival studies- looking at previous texts and other documents
Describe the characteristics of correlational research
Correlational method- examines the association between two variables
Give an example of positive and negative correlations.
• Positive correlation- as one variable goes up, the other goes up, or as one goes down the other goes down. The variables move in the same direction
• Negative correlation- as one variable goes up, the other goes down.
Why are correlational studies useful?
You can start with a correlation to see if you hypothesis is worth testing.
• They can be used to examine phenomena that cannot be manipulated (gender, culture, cognitive styles, level of health, etc)
Describe the characteristics of experimental research
o Experimental method- manipulates one variable to see what the effect is on another variable. This type of research lets you establish cause and effect relationships, unlike correlation.
What is an IV?
• Independent (IV)- the variable that is manipulated. The different groups are called "Conditions" or "levels"
What is a DV?
the variable that is measured
What three features of experiments allow you to make cause/effect conclusions?
-eliminates extraneous variables
What are the two broad things we consider when evaluating research?
Validity and reliability.
What are the types of validity?
• Convergent validity- correlation with similar measures
• Discriminant validity- no correlation with things it's not supposed to measure
• Construct validity- degree to which operationalizations match concepts
• Internal validity- extent to which third variables are controlled
• External validity- extent to which your findings are generalizable
• What are the ethical guidelines that govern psychological research
Full disclosure in debriefing
No undue or irreversible stress
• What are direct and indirect measures?
o Direct measures- ask participants directly how they feel about certain groups (such as self reports).
o Indirect measures (implicit cognition)- measures that tap into spontaneous cognitive processes. They help avoid social desirability concerns.
What is an advantage and disadvantage of direct and indirect measures
Advantages- You know that their answer is a result of what you asked them
Disadvantages- sometimes people lie to make themselves look better
• Advantages- participants are not in control of their responses so it is a real response (can't lie)
• Disadvantages- harder to prove causality
Describe three direct measures and one indirect measure.
1. Likert scale
2. Feeling thermometer
3. Adjective checklists
1. priming or IAT
• What are unobtrusive measures and physiological measures? Describe an example of each.
o Unobtrusive measures- measures that are seemingly unrelated to the main goal of the study and/or prejudice.
• Ex: behaviors- willingness to help, distance from others, speech errors, eye contact
o Physiological measures- examining changes in physiology to assess mental state. Can distinguish novel/familiar, positive/negative, emotional intensity
• Ex: heart rate, fMRI
• What is social categorization and what are the three reasons we categorize?
simplifying the environment by creating categories based on shared characteristics. It makes interactions more predictable, facilitates social behavior.
1. Cognitive efficiency helps us elaborate on social information
2. Social identity- by splitting up groups, it's easier to differentiate ourselves from others
3. Schemas- cognitive structures that contains knowledge and beliefs about an object or category
What are schemas and how do they relate to social categorization?
Schemas- cognitive structures that contains knowledge and beliefs about an object or category.
-Helps us store information about people, and categorize them.
• What are the two main types of categories and what is an advantage of using each type of category?
1. Basic social categories- most commonly used social categories, ex: race, gender, age.
• External characteristics as indicators, so they are easy to see. Lots of information about these categories in memory.
• Associated with specific cultural meanings
2. Subgroups- smaller stereotypes groups that are within a basic category
• Allow more differentiation within basic categories
• Gives us more information about targets
• What is the minimal group paradigm?
• Minimal group paradigm (Tajfel and Turner)- assignment to a group that is not socially meaningful
What does research using the minimal group paradigm indicate about ingroup bias?
...• Allows us to study the effect of group membership on positive behaviors
• Doesn't involve the expectation of future interaction
• Involves a group Ps aren't previously aware of
• What are the three theories that explain the origin of stereotypes. Describe and provide an example of each.
o Outgroup homogeneity effect- seeing members of outgroups as more similar than they are.
• We interact with ingroups more
• Ingroup interactions→focus on individuating information
• Cross group comparisons are group level; within group comparisons are individual-level
• The fundamental attribution error encourages...
• The ultimate attribution error- negative ingroup behavior is situational, but negative outgroup behavior is dispositional
o Social Role Theory- we notice the social roles people play and start to associate characteristics of the role with people in the role. Ex: kindergarten teachers are cheerful and nuturing etc, so since women are mostly kindergarten teachers they must be those.
• Creates powerful prescriptive stereotypes (how things should be)
• People are seen as "naturally suited" for the roles they play
o Illusory correlations- perception of a correlation that isn't real, based on the data
• We focus on distinctive, unusual information (small groups, strange or infrequent behavior, etc), so therefore we focus on and process that information more and it is more salient.
• When small groups engage in distinctive behaviors, we over-perceive the relationship
• What are shifting standards? Give an example of shifting standards in social judgment.
-judgments are typically influenced by a relative comparison. Ex: a large cat is still smaller than a small car.
-The stereotypes of the relevant group are the same way; to be really smart in a group that is not high achieving is different than being high achieving in a group that is high achieving.
How can psychologists study stereotype accuracy?
• Percentage estimates that are compared with real percentage of group members with a characteristic
• Perceived variability of a trait that's compared with the real distribution of the characteristic
• Rank groups in terms of likelihood of having a characteristic
What are two problems with research on stereotype accuracy?
• What are the three functions of stereotypes?
o Cognitive efficiency- makes the world seem stable and predictable
o Ego defense- derogating outgroups makes people feel better
o Social adjustment- norms and expectations are part of fitting in to a social group
• What are two ways stereotypes are maintained? Make sure that you're prepared to discuss either Darley & Gross (1983) or Rattan & Dweck (2010) in your answer.
o Recall of information- stereotype consistent information is easier to remember and store, whereas inconsistent information sticks out but only grabs immediate attention.
• Darley and Gross (1983)
• Ps evaluate a girl named Hannah.
• IV 1: Ps are led to have high socio-economic status or low SES expectations
• IV 2: whether or not Ps watch a video of her taking a test or just find out her scores. Her performance is average
• DV: the grade the Ps predict Hannah is performing at. Is she ahead or behind?
• Results: when people get to watch her take the test on video, the people who had high SES expectations thought she was way ahead, the people with low SES expectations thought she was way behind. When they just got the results and didn't watch the video then they judged her to be about right for her actual grade with not a huge gap according to expectation.
• What is the Linguistic Intergroup Bias (LIB)?
Linguistic intergroup bias (LIB)- positive ingroup and negative outgroup traits are described abstractly, so they are resistant to change. Positive outgroup and negative ingroup traits are described concretely
Describe how LIB might make it difficult to change stereotypes.
describe the Maass et al. (1989) study that demonstrates the LIB.
o Maass et al. (1989)-
• Ps saw cartoons depicting behaviors of in and outgroup members and chose the language that best described the scene. The options for language ranged from very concrete to pretty abstract
• Results: ingroup desirable behavior was more abstract, and outgroup undesirable behavior was much more abstract
• What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?
elf-fulfilling prophecies- when you act based on a schema in such a way that the object of the schema is likely to confirm your expectations. The schema avoids disconfirming the evidence by reaching out and making reality conform to it.
• Step 1- perceiver's behavior towards the target fits a certain set of expectations
• Step 2- then target's behavior towards the perceiver
• Step 3- the perceiver's expectations get based of the target's behavior
o Snyder, tanke, and Berscheid (1977)-
• Ps assigned to male/female pairs
• IV: males see an attractive or unattractive photo of their female partner (not their actual partner). Then the male provides an initial impression.
• Men in attractive condition expect partner to be more sociable, poised, humorous, and socially adept
• Then over an intercom system the pairs have a ten minute conversation
• Tapes of the conversations are rated by judges
• males interacting with attractive, relative to unattractive, females are rated as:
o More sociable, interesting, independent, sexually permissive, outgoing, humorous, socially adept
o More confident and animated
o Liking their partner more
o Males acted in accord with expectations
• Females presumed to be attractive, relative to unattractive, are rated as:
o More sociable, poised, humorous, etc
o More confident and animated
o Greater enjoyment, greater liking for their partner
o Females responded in kind (evidence of behavioral confirmation)
• What are the three models of stereotype change?
...o Book-keeping model- change comes as people add and subtract information from schemas
o Conversion model- based on undeniable contradictory evidence, beliefs change quickly. Often seen in kids, ex: girls all have long hair, but then the kid sees a guy with long hair
o Subtyping model- stereotype inconsistent exemplars are seen as "the exception to the rule." Concentrated disconfirmation (vs. dispersed).
• What are automatic and controlled processes? What are the characteristics of each?
Automatic processes- we rely on this when we are not motivated to think. Ex: walking, knitting, etc
• Characteristics- unconscious, unintentional, involuntary, effortless
• Examples of automaticity-
• Law of closure- your brain fills in shapes and known entities, such as a person's head or torso if it is covered up
• Texture gradient- things up close have textures, things far away are blurry
o Controlled processes- we rely on this when we are motivated to think
• Characteristics- conscious, intentional, voluntary, effortful
• Examples- driving for the first time, what is 5x7, what are the words to the pledge of allegiance?
• What is the three-step process of stereotype usage? Is each stage automatic or controlled?
1. Categorization- connecting a person to a stereotyped group membership. Automatic
2. Stereotype activation- automatic- the extent to which a stereotype is accessible
3. Stereotype application- using a stereotype in judging a member of a stereotyped group. Automatic and controlled
• Identify and describe three of the five factors that affect categorization.
o Basic category membership (race, gender, age)
o Situational factors- solo status- any dimension on which a target is unique is more likely to be used in categorization
o Prototypicality- the extent to which the target fits the essential characteristics of the group
• Related to liking- likable ingroup members and unlikable outgroup members may be more prototypical
• Describe the Macrae, Bodenhausen, & Milne (1995) research about people who could be categorized in multiple ways.
o Macrae, Bodenhausen, and Milne (1995)- Ps viewed videotape of Asian American woman
• IV- prime- either she is putting on lipstick (female prime), eating with chopsticks (Asian prime), or control condition (no video).
• Ps complete a lexical decision task where they make word/nonword judgments. On this task some words are stereotypic of women (thoughtful, friendly, emotional, romantic), and some are stereotypic of Asian-Americans (trustworthy, considerate, gracious, calm).
• DV- how easy or hard it is to categorize certain words. Reaction times on lexical decision task to assess activation and inhibition of stereotypes. Faster reaction times indicate more activation and slower times indicate inhibition
• Results- in control condition it takes same amount of time to categorize female or Asian stereotypic words. After watching her put on makeup they are much faster at categorizing female words. After watching her eat with chopsticks they are much faster at categorizing Asian words.
• What are the three factors that affect automatic stereotype activation? In your answer, describe one of the two studies from the Gilbert & Hixon research.
o Same things as categorization (prototypicality, solo status, prejudice or perceiver)
• Cognitive load- a state of mental overload that impairs our ability to think
• Gilbert and Hixon (1991)- do people automatically activate and apply stereotypes in the presence of category members
o IV 1- Ps put under cognitive load or not
o Then Ps watch a video to do a word completion task. (words like "s_ort" and "ri_e."
o IV 2- the person turning the cards is Asian or White
o DV- number of stereotypic word completions
o Results- under cognitive load they complete less words stereotypically. When people are under cognitive load they are less likely to activate stereotypes because they do not notice the race of the card turner.
Kivel (2000)What is a culture of power? Be prepared with two examples of how a culture of power can manifest itself in subtle ways.
a. Culture of power is when one group has power and it is noticeable to others who are not in that group that the in group has the power
i. Books are often written by men, and many science classes might have more men than women
ii. The furnishings in a church would indicate the culture of power if an atheist walked in
Markus & Moya (2010) • What is the authors' basic argument in this chapter?
o Markus and Moya's basic argument in the introduction to "Doing Race" is that race is a huge factor in the everyday lives of every person and that not acknowledging race as a real issue is being dishonest or naïve. Their other argument is that race is something you have done to you or that you do to other people (an action), as opposed to an inherent characteristic of a person.
Markus & Moya (2010) • What are two of the eight conversations we typically have about race? Be prepared to describe both of them and provide an example of each one.
o An example of "We're beyond race" is when Obama won the South Carolina democratic primary and the crowd started chanting "Race doesn't matter."
o An example of "racial diversity is killing us" is the Minutemen Civil Defense Corps, a group of people who defend the U.S. Mexico border.
Markus & Moya (2010) • How do the authors define race and ethnicity? According to the authors, which one is positive and which is negative?
o Race is defined as what people do, either what an individual does to the people around them and what the people around that individual do to the individual, so therefore it is an action. Race is a complex system of ideas and practices, and it helps people understand who they are. It is negative
o Ethnicity is nearly the same concept as race. However, Markus and Moya see it as being a more positive process than race because it is more mutual and less power driven. Ethnicity is not always positive though, and can sometimes have the same effect as race. Ethnicity is also an action because it is also based on a system of ideas and practices
Markus & Moya (2010) • What are the two assumptions and one ideal that the authors argue underlie our racial attitudes in the US?
o The two assumptions that Markus and Moya argue underlie racial attitudes in the U.S. are that race is a biological thing and that the individual is the source of all thought, feeling and action. The one ideal that underlies racial attitudes in the U.S. is that all people are created equal.
Markus & Moya (2010) • What are two of the authors' six suggestions for doing race differently?
o Study history to understand the origins of race and racism and to see if there are precedents for stopping racism
o Recognize that people are not individuals and that we depend on our culture and society to form our sense of self
Biernat & Danaher (2012)• What are subjective and objective judgments? Give an example of each.
a. Subjective judgments are opinions rather than facts, exist only in your own head
i. This shirt is prettier than that one
b. Objective judgments- not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased
Biernat & Danaher (2012) • What does this paper add to the existing research on the shifting standards model?
a. Shifting standards- judgments are typically influenced by a relative comparison. Ex: a large cat is still smaller than a small car.
i. The stereotypes of the relevant group are the same way; to be really smart in a group that is not high achieving is different than being high achieving in a group that is high achieving.
b. none of this earlier research has addressed the direct translation or understanding of feedback received, the focus of this research. This research focused on translation of feedback as a cause of shifting standards
Biernat & Danaher (2012) • Be prepared to explain one of the experiments in this paper, including the participants, IV, DVs, and Results.
...a. Study 1- participants (26 women, 20 men, all white) are told to role-play being the president of a campus group and write an email to all the members, which was then sent for "feedback," (everyone got the same feedback and it was very ambiguous).
i. IV- feedback given to participants
ii. DV- two measures of leadership importance (one before roleplaying and one after), and measure of objective translation of the feedback EX: what letter grade in leadership do you think the feedback giver would give you?
iii. Results- consistent with predictions, women "translated" this feedback to indicate a worse objective performance than did men; they also assumed they were held to lower standards than did men. These ﬁndings suggest that members of groups stereotyped as deﬁcient on a performance dimension may translate feedback with the stereotype in mind. "Bad" at leadership is perceived to be worse if one is a woman than a manmenter, or were given no information on this point. Those in the negative feedback conditions were also shown a blank evaluation sheet prior to writing their essay, which indicated seven evaluative criteria, including clarity of thought, critical thinking, etc. A 7-point scale ranging from 1 (inadequate) to 7 (outstanding) accompanied each item.
Kay et al. (2013)• Why do the authors think positive stereotypes are less likely to be detected?
Kay et al. (2013) • What do the authors argue are the two negative consequences of positive stereotypes?
Kay et al. (2013) • Be prepared to explain one of the experiments in this paper, including the participants, IV, DVs, and Results.
Markus & Moya (2010) - Chapter 16 by Eberhardt • The author discusses four areas in the criminal justice system where the black-crime link can manifest. Identify and briefly describe each area. Describe one of the studies from the chapter that offers evidence of this association.
...a. Weapon detection- black people are more associated with weapons, so it is easier to see weapons after being primed with images of black people
b. Racial profiling- black people are more associated with crime, so they get blamed more
c. False identification- people who are more stereotypically black are more likely to be stopped and questioned
d. Death sentencing- stereotypically black people are more likely to be sentenced to death after killing a white person
i. Photographs of black people convicted of death penalty worthy crimes (600 pictures) were shown to participants who did not know that they had been convicted. Participants rated the photos on how stereotypically black they seemed
ii. Results- black convicts who appeared stereotypically black but had killed a black person were convicted at the same rate as less stereotypically black convicts. But stereotypically black convicts who had killed a white defendant were more than twice as likely to be sentenced to death.
Markus & Moya (2010) - Chapter 16 by Eberhardt • The author discusses four areas in which the association between blacks and apes has been studied. Identify and briefly describe each area. Describe one of the studies from the chapter that offers evidence of this association.
a. Ape detection- participants were primed with faces, some black some white. This did not effect their ability to detect non-ape images afterwards, but being primed with a black person's image facilitated being able to recognize an image of an ape much faster.
b. Visual attention- when prompted to think of apes, participants were much faster in locating a black face than a white face
c. Violence justification- when primed with ape words, participants thought black suspects were much more deserving of being arrested and treated poorly than white suspects.
d. Death sentencing- there are significantly more animal-imagery related words in articles about black people who committed crimes than white, and even more in articles about black people getting the death penalty
Markus & Moya (2010) - Chapter 16 by Eberhardt • Does the author think that these associations are a product of hatred?
a. No they believe it is the product of implicit knowledge (e.g., picking up on cues from other people and articles)
Ku, Wang, & Galinsky (2010) • What is perspective taking?
a.Perspective taking is where you put yourself in someone else's shoes.
Ku, Wang, & Galinsky (2010) What are the two effects of perspective taking? Why does perspective taking have these two opposing effects?
i. Two effects: You start to act more like the person whose perspective you are taking, and you tend to judge them less stereotypically
ii. In order to justify not stereotyping them as harshly, you have to become more like them while making them more like you. Meeting in the middle
Ku, Wang, & Galinsky (2010)
• Be prepared to explain one of the experiments in this paper, including the participants, IV, DVs, and Results.
a. 30 undergrads at Northwestern were asked to write about a day in the life of an elderly man
i. IV- 1/3 were told to write objectively, 1/3 were told to take the perspective of the man, and the other 1/3 were told to actively avoid thinking about the subject stereotypically (suppression)
ii. DV- then they read about an elderly woman named Donna and rated how dependent they thought she was. Also, walking towards the exit after the study was timed.
iii. Results- they judged Donna as less dependent and walked slower
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