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54 terms

Psychology Quiz 4-A

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An organic methyl molecule attached to part of a DNA strand has been identified as a(n)
epigenetic mark
An African butterfly that is green in the summer turns brown in the fall thanks to a temperature-controlled genetic switch. This best illustrates that genes are
self-regulating
Placing ourselves in environments well suited to our existing traits best illustrates
a selection effect.
The unique temperaments of children evoke predictable responses from their caregivers. This best illustrates the ________ of nature and nurture
interaction
When the effect of one factor depends on the presence of another factor, outcomes are said to reflect
an interaction.
Chromosomes are contained within
all of these types of cells.
Beginning early in their prenatal developments, fraternal twins are
dizygotic.
Dante is healthier than his twin brother because he developed with a better placental barrier against viruses. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on development
prenatal environment
Juan and Alonzo are fraternal twin brothers, whereas Jake and Alex are identical twin brothers. The similarities between Jake and Alex with respect to ________ are likely to be greater than the similarities between Juan and Alonzo.
all of these characteristics
Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us, is an aspect of our
environment.
We are likely to ________ the personality similarities among children in the same family, and we are likely to ________ the personality similarities between parents and their children.
overestimate; overestimate
The labels "easy," "difficult," and "slow-to-warm-up" are used to refer to differences in an infant's
temperament
The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ________ than on their ________.
religious beliefs; personality traits
The ability to provide would-be parents with information regarding their fetus' risk for a learning disorder is a potential benefit of
molecular behavior genetics.
Although identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities, one should be cautious about attributing these similarities to genetic factors because
any two strangers are likely to share a string of coincidental similarities
Those who defend evolutionary psychology against criticism are most likely to suggest that evolutionary principles
generate testable predictions.
Compared with men, women are ________ likely to desire more frequent sex and ________ likely to perceive simple friendliness as a sexual come-on.
less; less
Women are most likely to be sexually attracted to men who seem
mature and affluent
Men in their ________ are most likely to be sexually attracted to women who are several years older rather than several years younger than themselves.
teens
Brittla spends a lot of money on cosmetics and expensive clothing to attract a desirable mate. According to evolutionary psychologists, Brittla's behavior is a product of
genetic predispositions
Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute gender differences in attitudes toward casual sex to the fact that men have ________ than do women.
greater reproductive potential
In a study of Welsh pedestrians, women rated a man as ________ if he was pictured at the wheel of an expensive rather than an inexpensive car. Men rated a woman as ________ if she was pictured at the wheel of an expensive rather than an inexpensive car.
more attractive; no more attractive
According to evolutionary psychologists, our predisposition to overconsume fatty junk foods illustrates that we are biologically prepared to behave in ways that promoted the ________ of our ancestors.
reproductive success
Critics of evolutionary psychology are most likely to suggest that it underestimates the
impact of cultural expectations on human sexual behavior
Heritability refers to the extent to which
trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations.
One form of a gene that regulates the neurotransmitter serotonin contributes to the development of
a fearful temperament.
Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are ________ similar in neuroticism and ________ similar in risk of divorcing.
less; less
A human sperm cell contains
23 chromosomes.
A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying hereditary influences on
personality traits.
At about eight months of age, people across the world start to ________ strangers; as adults, they prefer the company of those whose attributes are ________ to their own.
fear; similar
The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called
genes.
Infant rats deprived of their mothers' normal licking had more ________ that block access to the "on" switch for developing the brain's stress hormone receptors.
epigenetic molecules
Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of
natural selection.
The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as
natural selection.
Our adaptive flexibility in responding to different environments contributes to our fitness, which refers to
our ability to survive and reproduce.
Gender differences in heritable personality traits cannot necessarily be attributed to male-female genetic differences because
heritable traits can be influenced by social environments.
Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to emphasize that human adaptiveness to a variety of different environments has contributed to human
reproductive success.
Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to predict that
children are more likely to be valued by their biological fathers than by their stepfathers.
An evolutionary psychologist would suggest that people are genetically predisposed to
do all of these things
If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates
natural selection.
Compared with women, men are more likely to
behave in all these ways.
Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be
irritable and unpredictable
A child's temperament is likely to be
stable over time.
An infant's temperament refers most directly to its
emotional excitability.
The genome is the complete
set of genetic material in an organism's chromosomes.
Identical twins are most likely to share a similar prenatal environment if they share the same
placenta.
Identical twins originate from the fertilization of
single egg cell by a single sperm cell.
A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a
gene.
Assessing possible links between specific chromosome segments and alcohol dependence would be of greatest interest to a(n)
molecular geneticist.
The heritability of a specific trait will be greatest among
genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in similar environments.
Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of
selective mating
Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. The two children most clearly differ in
temperament
The personalities of adopted children
are not very similar to the personalities of their adoptive parents
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as
behavior genetics.