The political annexation of territory in the 1880s--the third and most dynamic phase of aggressive expansion. Characterized by a frantic rush to plant a flag over as many people/as much land as possible. Aimed primarily at Africa and Asia. Resulted in conflict within Europe.
Europeans fashioned the global economic system so that the largest share of the ever-increasing gains from trade, technology, and migration flowed to the ________ and its propertied classes.
A world of rich lands and poor, that developed because of the industrial revolution and its new economy. Uneven global development.
Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Characterized by increasingly low standards of living in comparison to Europe in the period after European industrialization.
Only after _____, in the era of political independence and decolonization, did Third World countries finally make some real economic progress, beginning in their turn the critical process of industrialization.
Reign of Ismail in Egypt.
Reign of Leopold II in Belgium.
Rudyard Kipling published "The White Man's Burden" in this year.
$38 billion, 25
In 1913, the value of world trade was roughly ________________, or about _____ times what it had been in 1800, even though prices of both manufactured goods and raw materials were lower in 1913 than in 1800.
In 1815, ______ __________ already had a colonial empire for India, Canada, Australia, and other scattered areas.
By 1820, Britain was exporting ___ percent of its cotton textiles production. Europe bought 50% while India bought 6%. By 1850, Europe was buying just 16% and India 25%.
After the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846, Britain became the world's single best _________.
conquest of distance
The growth of trade was stimulated by the __________ __ __________.
steel, iron, wood
In Britain, in boats, the lighter, stronger, cheaper _______ replaced _______, which had replaced ______.
Improved ______________ allowed Asia, Africa, and Latin America to ship not only the traditional tropical products (spices, tea, sugar, coffee), but also new raw materials for industry, such as rubber, jute, cotton, and coconut oil.
Intercontinental trade was greatly facilitated by the ______ and Panama canals.
By the outbreak of WWI, Europeans had invested more than ___ billion dollars abroad. Great Britain, France, and Germany were the principle investing countries, but the United States was emerging.
In the decade before 1914, G. Britain was investing __ percent of its annual national income abroad, slightly more than it was investing in its entire domestic economy.
The selling of British opium to China. It was significant because the British had finally found something that Chinese people wanted to buy, but it was controversial in that opium was dangerous. The Chinese took extreme measures to punish any and all who partook in this.
Treaty of Nanking
The 1842 Treaty between China and Great Britain that established that the Chinese imperial government was required to cede Hong Kong to Britain forever, pay an indemnity of $100 million, and open up 4 large cities to trade with low tariffs. Resolved conflict over British insistence on the continuation of the opium trade.
A special envoy sent to Canton in 1839 to order foreign British merchants to abide by Chinese laws.
True or False? When United States and Britain 's whaling ships began to show up on Japan's coast in 1825, Japanese officials were commanded to drive away foreign vessels without a second thought.
An American commodore that steamed into Edo bay in 1853 and demanded diplomatic negotiations with the emperor. Because the Japanese feared United States military power, it worked, and a treaty was signed that opened 2 ports and permitted trade.
The Albanian-born Turkish general and first appointed governor of Egypt by the Turkish sultan who established a strong Egyptian state for the Turkish empire with reforms, literacy, and the building of a trained army.
Prince in Egypt. What Ismail Ali became in 1863.
A westernizing autocrat who was educated in France and the prince of Egypt after his father. Supported the completion of the Suez canal, the industrialization and modernization of Egypt, and more. However, his endeavors were very expensive and he owed a lot of money to Britain and France.
Opening of the Suez Canal
November 1869: the building of the hundred-mile canal is celebrated as it is "opened".
Egyptian Nationalist Party
A group created in 1879 under the leadership of Colonel Ahmed Arabi. In reaction to foreign financial control.
The ________said their occupation in Egypt was temporary, but they stayed there until 1956. They used the khedive as a puppet, and although they created tax reforms and better peasant conditions, they hurt the pride of Egyptian nationalists.
The time in which millions of people moved from their ancestral lands. For instance, between 1815 and 1932, over 60 million people left Europe.
The growth of Europe's _________________ became a motive for migration.
The pattern of THIS country's migration was irregular after about 1830, reaching a first peak in the early 1850's and another in the early 1880's. Thereafter it declined rapidly.
The pattern of THIS country's migration was sharply different than that of Germany. More and more people left this country up until 1914, reflecting problems in villages and slow industrial growth.
Less than half of all migrants went to the ____________ __________, even though the largest number of Europe's migrants went here.
The ________________ ___________ was usually a small peasant landowner or a village craftsman whose traditional way of life was threatened by little land, estate agriculture, and cheap, factory-made goods.
Migrants were an ________ to the countries that recieved them because they were young, ready to work, and often unmarried.
Many Italians who had no intention of settling abroad permanently. They harvested their own wheat in Italy, went to Argentina to harvest wheat, and returned to Italy to do the process over again.
Many landless young European men and women were spurred to migrate by a spirit of revolt and ____________. They felt frustrated by the small privileged classes who often controlled both church and government.
THIS slowed down when the people won basic political and social reforms like the right to vote and social security.
At least __ million Asians moved abroad before 1920.
More than ___ million Europeans moved abroad before 1920.
Many Asian immigrants spent their lives as virtual _______. However, many escaped the inevitable work by fleeing plantations and gold mines ASAP and seeking opportunities in trade towns.
great white walls
Discriminatory laws designed to keep Asians out, created by America and Austrialia by the 1880s.
The apex period of the expansion of Western society.
Scramble for Africa
Occurring between about 1880 and 1900, the rapid seizure of African colonies by European powers such as France, Britain, Germany, and Italy.
The descendants of the Dutch in the Cape Colony (also Boers), who made a Great Trek to the interior of Africa when the British took possession of Cape Town, South Africa. There they claimed political independence.
These two countries were the only ones in Africa left under African rule in 1900. The first repulsed Italian invaders and the second remained independent.
(1853-1902), a British imperialist. He established protectorates in many areas of Africa (Bechuanaland, Rhodesia), and tried to undermine Afrikaners in tbhe Transvaal, which resulted in the South African War.
South African War
Also Boer War. This war, which occurred between 1899 and 1902, was between the Afrikaners and the British in South Africa. The British won.
Leopold II (of Belgium)
An energetic, strong-willed monarch of Belgium who had a lust for distant territory. He focused on central Africa.
Henry M. Stanley
A sensation-seeking journalist and part-time explorer sent by Leopold II to the Congo basin. Established trade and land for Belgium there.
Pierre de Brazza
A French delegate who was sent to central Africa when the French got word of Leopold's conquests there. He signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on the north bank of the Congo River.
An international conference in 1884 and 1885 arranged by Otto von Bismarck of Germany and Jules Ferry of France. Established that in order to be recognized, an occupied state must be occupied effectively. Also established Leopold's rule over a neutral Congo and attempts to stop slavery. Basically split up Africa.
The Berlin conference coincided with THIS country's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
Otto von Bismarck
The German leader who saw little value in colonies until 1880, then did an about-face and established protectorates for a number of small African kingdoms and tribes in Togo, Cameroons, SW Africa, E Africa....
(Horatio H.) Kitchener
The British general who moved cautiously up the Nile River, building a railroad as he went. Met in conflict with Muslim tribesmen at Omdurman, but used machine guns to decisively slaughter them. At Fashoda, however, his troops faced conflict with France.
The conflict between Britain and France for control of Fashoda in Africa in the late 1890's. Never reached full-on war, but close. France lost in the end because of internal conflict over the Dreyfus Affair.
In the critical decade of the 1880s, the French under the leadership of Jules Ferry took ____________, a prominent Asian region.
THIS country conquered Muslim areas in South Asia (Caucasus) and in Central Asia, as well as the edges of China.
THIS country conquered the Philippines in 1898, taking them from Spain after the Spanish-American war. Did NOT grant independence.
Because other countries were starting to industrialize quickly, providing competition, Great Britain began to value old possessions like India and Canada MORE or LESS?
Actually, the overall economic gain from the new imperialism proved quite limited until ____. The new colonies were too poor to buy much and offered few profitable investments. Still, colonies became important for political reasons.
In the age of imperialism, many people were convinced that ___________ were essential to great nations. One man who shared this view was German nationalist historian Heinrich von Treitschke.
This German nationalist historian's views that expansion was essential to greatness as a nation reflected nationalism as well as Social Darwinism.
This weapon, so instrumental in the defeat of the Muslims at Omdurman, helped the Europeans gain military superiority and was a motive for conquest.
The vaccine-like thing that helped control malaria. It helped the Europeans gain superiority and made people more apt to expand into Africa.
Some countries, such as THESE TWO, used expansion to divert attention from problems domestically and to create a false sense of national unity. They used propaganda to glorify imperialism.
Shipping companies, white settlers, missionaries, humanitarians, and the military were some of THESE that advocated imperialism for their own reasons, most often selfish reasons.
white man's burden
The ideaology that emerged to defend imperialism during the Age of Imperialism. It was the idea that a civilization had reached an advanced state and needed to civilize, Christianize, and protect less developed areas.
Christianizing efforts, while often successful in Africa, most often _________ in places like India, China, and the Islamic world, where ancient religion was already established.
This man, in his "Imperialism", argued that colonialism was due to the economic needs of unregulated capitalism, particularly the need of the rich to find outlets for their surplus capital. It didn't, he said, provide economic gain for countries as wholes. He also pointed out that imperialism distracted from necessary domestic reform, particularly to decrease the gap between rich and poor.
A member of Parliament and prominent spokesman who mocked Kipling's poem with "The Brown Man's burden"
The author of "Heart of Darkness", 1902, which described the selfishness of colonialists with fiction.
In Asia and Africa, local chiefs, landowners, religious leaders
In Asia and Africa, Western-educated, professional classes and civil servants
Through imperialism, those on the recieving end discovered _______________, and used it to attempt to fight back with nationalistic pride.
The last "traditional" response to European rule in India. An insurrection by Muslim and Hindu mercenaries in the British Army spread throughout India before it was finally broken in 1857 and 1858, primarily by loyal native troops from S. India.
After ______, India was ruled by the British Parliament in London and administered by a tiny, all-white civil service in India.
white woman's burden
The idea that some British women held that they needed to improve the lives of Indian women by educating them and teaching them Western ways.
The most successful reform in India imposed by the British. Helped Indians gain advantages.
This class of Indians was quick to respond to British education and emerged as skillful intermediaries between British rulers and Indian people. They formed their own new bureaucratic elite that played a crucial part in modern economic development.
Despite the creation of a unified state and some advances for Indians, the reaction to British control over India was mostly Indian ______________. Racial discrimination hurt the educated Indian's pride.
Indian National Congress
Predominately Hindu group of educated Indians that came together in 1885 and demanded equality and self-government for Indians, such as the situation in Canada and Australia.
the military governor in Japan that held the real power despite the existence of a figurehead emperor.
The Japanese warrior nobility that helped the shogun to create a hardworking country. Very proud.
A great turning point in Japanese development in which a coalition led by patriotic samurai seized control of the government without much bloodshed and restored the political power of the emperor in 1867.
The most important goal of the new Japanese government under the Meiji reformers was to meet the ________ _________. To do this, they needed to create reforms to make Japan as strong and advanced as Europe.
Japanese _________ included the dismantling of four class legal system in favor of social equality, the creation of a unified state, freedom of movement, a free, government-stimulated economy, etc. They also included the builiding of railroads and modern factories.
A powerful, modern _______ was created in Japan to rival those of the west. The army was also reorganized to be like those in Europe.
The new Japan was like the ___________ __________ in that it adopted an authoritarian constitution and rejected democracy.
Japan successfully copied the ________________ of Western society, taking Formosa (modern Taiwan) and also Korea from China. It gained Chinese land like Manchuria. It even beat Russia in an imperialistic war.
In 1860, the 200-yr-old ______ __________ in China appeared on the verge of collapse
The empress dowager in China who governed in the name of her young son and revitalized the bureaucracy. She drew on conservative forces to maintain her power.
The 1894-1895 imperialistic war between Japan and China that Japan decisively won. They gave China a harsh treaty with foreign concessions and protectorates. During this time, probably only the jealousy European nations felt for each other saved China from partition.
U.S. Open Door Policy
opposed formal annexation of Chinese territory.
hundred days of reform
in China in 1898, a desperate period where the government tried to catch up to Europe by instating Western ideas and advancements.
The revolutionary Chinese reformer who came from the peasantry and was educated in Hawaii by Christians. He wanted to overthrow the dynasty in favor of a republic.
A rebellion in China (1900-1903), of a secret society that did not want reforms.
The Qing dynasty toppled in ______ when a surprise uprising tipped the scales. A Western-style republic with an elected Parliament was introduced.