Chapter 16

The continued existence of as many species as possible provides what kinds of value to humans?
Economic, aesthetic, medical, & ecosystem recovery values.
The total value of an ecosystem
includes all of the values embodied by the ecosystem, including future uses and non-use values (such as cultural, symbolic, and aesthetic values) of an ecosystem.
Conservation biology draws from all but which of the following disciplines?
All physical, economic, social, and biological sciences.
Which of the following is NOT a subdiscipline of ecology that contributes to conservation biology?
deep ecology
Conservation biologists employ the methods and knowledge derived from which of these other fields of biology?
Systematics and taxonomy, molecular, genetics, ecology
Which of the following systems has the highest level of species richness and endemic species?
tropical moist forests
Biodiversity (?) have been identified based on high biodiversity and imminent threats caused by human activities.
Madagascar is MOST important to conservation because it:
has the highest percentage of endemic plants and animals of any comparably sized area on earth.
Species richness tends to increase toward the:
A species found ONLY within a certain region is said to be what to that region.
Biodiversity hotspots are defined by which two criteria?
The number of endemic species and the degree of threat
Which one of the following features would NOT be an important factor in deciding that an area is a "biodiversity hotspot?"
low human population density
One reason there is more species diversity in the tropics is:
there is more solar energy available in the tropics than in the temperate zones.
A habitat with (?) disturbance is expected to have the greatest species richness.
an intermediate amount of
Disturbances cause a decrease in carrying capacity for all populations in the disturbed habitat. This statement is:
incorrect; while a disturbance may lower carrying capacity for some populations, it may increase carrying capacity for others.
According to island biogeography theory, the highest numbers of species would be found on islands that:
are large in size and near to continents.
According to the "distance effect," between two islands of the same size, immigration rates will:
be greater on the island that is closer to the mainland.
The number of species on an island represents a balance between:
the rate of immigration to the island by new species and the rate of extinction of species on the island.
Species richness increases:
as a larger area is sampled.
According to the theory of island biogeography, the "area effect" explains why:
Bali has more species than Madagascar.
By fumigating several islands in the Florida Keys with methyl bromide, scientists demonstrated that:
the rate of immigration of new species and extinction of species on an island is a function of island size and distance from the mainland.
According to the theory of island biogeography, which of the following islands should have the highest number of species at equilibrium?
a large island near the continent
In conservation biology, the concept of area effect states that:
Both (a&c)
Island biogeography predicts that extinction rates are highest:
on small islands; distance does not impact extinction rates.
According to the theory of island biogeography, which of the following statements is most accurate?
Both a&b
The theory of island biogeography has value for conservation biology because:
it gives us direction in the design of natural reserve areas.
Which of the following species is NOT extinct?
the peregrine falcon
What bird, once the most abundant in North America, was hunted to extinction by means of shooting and trapping during the most of the 1800s?
passenger pigeon
Which of the following attributes of a species might render it especially susceptible to extinction?
It has a narrow dispersal range.
A species' chances of becoming extinct are increased when its geographic range is _____________, its local population size is _____________, and it habitat tolerance is _______________.
restricted; small; narrow
Which of the following is NOT an indicator of increased extinction threat for a species?
high genetic diversity
Species particularly vulnerable to extinction include:
All of the above. Species with very little genetic variability, endemic species, species commercially used by humans, and species with small or declining populations
Background extinction rates tend to:
have decreased over the past 500 million years.
How many species do biologists estimate to be currently on earth?
between 5 million and 100 million
What does it mean to say that a species is endangered?
That species is in imminent danger of extinction.
What does is mean to say a species is a "threatened" species?
That species is not in immediate danger of extinction but is likely to be so in the near future.
Though still important, which of the following is NOT one of the leading causes of extinction?
greenhouse gas accumulation
Which of the following is currently the leading cause of extinction?
habitat loss
Currently, the major threat to most large land mammals is:
habitat loss
Which of the following industries may lead to overexploitation of resources?
All farming, forestry, hunting, and fishery
Today, the landscape of New England consists mainly of forests. Four hundred years ago, the landscape of New England consisted:
mainly of forests.
The first species of plants to grow in after a farm field is abandoned are often:
Ecosystem disturbance may be reversible when:
B&C it occurs very quickly and is caused by humans
Which of the following is NOT a troublesome exotic species?
the common milkweed in the United States
Which of the following troublesome exotic species was NOT introduced intentionally?
Both B&C. The brown tree snake in Guam and the zebra mussel in the U.S
In the United States, purple loosestrife is:
an exotic flowering plant that has caused significant problems for native species.
Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about the zebra mussel in North America?
It has a negative impact on all of the native species in the lakes and rivers it inhabits.
When a species is introduced into a habitat that is not its natural ecosystem, the species could become invasive. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of an invasive species?
Invasive species never have negative effects on a new habitat's biodiversity.
In the United States, acid rain is most prevalent in:
Fossil fuels are composed largely of
Hydrogen and Carbon
When sulfur burns, its immediate product is:
the gas sulfur dioxide
When a hydrocarbon containing nitrogen combusts, its IMMEDIATE product is:
nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
Acid precipitation dissolves what in soil and carries the dissolved metal—which is toxic to animals—into lakes and streams, where it can kill most forms of aquatic animal life.
As a result of acid rain, some lakes in the northeastern United States have pH values as low as 4.0, which is how much more acidic than pure water?
1,000 times
Which of the following is considered to be a greenhouse gas?
Both B&C methane and carbon dioxide
Over the last 200 years, the amount of CO2 in the air has:
Both A&B. Increased b/c the amount of photosynthetic biomass has decreased and remained constant.
Even though there is a carbon cycle, it now appears that CO2 levels are rising around the world. Which of the following best explains why this is true?
The burning of fossil fuels releases large amounts of CO2, thus increasing the average concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Planting trees can combat global warming, because:
photosynthesis from those trees absorbs CO2, a greenhouse gas, from the atmosphere.
Ozone depletion is a cause for concern because:
without the protection against solar radiation provided by ozone, rates of skin cancer are likely to increase.
Ozone's chemical formula is
Which of the following is not an important greenhouse gas?
Sulfur dioxide, SO2
Which of the following is the most species rich terrestrial biome?
Tropical rain forests
What's responsible for the greatest loss of tropical forests?
What's not an example of a human activity that directly threatens the biodiversity of species?
The picking of flowers
Classifying animals as endangered or threatened:
Both B&C. Makes legal tools available to help protect the species and describes the likelihood of a species' continued survival
Species conservation is more important than ecosystem conservation. This statement is
A highly debated topic with no definitive solution
Given limited resources and the inability to conserve all of the endangered species on the planet, is it more important to conserve 1 endangered bird species or 1,000 unknown bacterial species?
This is not a question that can be answered scientifically or objectively
What does it mean in conservation biology to say a habitat is fragmented?
The habitat exists in patches that are physically isolated from each other
An umbrella species
is a species whose protection results in the protection of many other species as well
A species that can engender significant public support for conservation of other species and the ecosystem they inhabit is called
A flagship
What does the term "corridor" refer to?
Sections of habitat which organisms use to travel between two or more isolated patches of habitat
Which of the following statements about habitat loss is CORRECT?
Fragmented habitats can only support small populations of the species living in them.
When preserving areas to act as reservoirs for biodiversity, corridors are important because:
they increase gene flow between the areas they connect.
The most effective nature preserves:
incorporate areas of high species diversity.
Based on what you know about preserving biodiversity, when might a conservation biologist want to introduce a species to an area?
When the natural population of that species has been destroyed by human behavior.
An urban planner wants to build some new homes in a woodland area but wants to do so in a manner that is the least disruptive to its natural biodiversity levels. Which of the following choices is her best mode of action?
To build all the homes on one side of the forest, leaving the majority of the forest intact and grouped together.