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a state that energizes and directs behavior

shortcoming of the instinct theory of motivation

doesn't explain human behaviors just names them

few human behaviors are rigidly patterned enough to qualify as ____


instinct theory and drive reduction theory both emphasize

biological factors in motivation

difference of a drive and a need

needs are physiological states; drives are psychological states


the tendency to maintain a steady internal state

problem with idea of motication as drive reduction

b/c some motivated behaviors don't seem to be based on physiological needs, they cannot be explained in terms of drive reduction

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs(starting with most basic)

physiological;safety; belongingness and love; esteem; self-fulfillment

Maslow's theory

most basic motives are based on physiological needs, needs are satisfied in a specified order, the highest motives relate to self-actualization.

Keys study of men on semistarvation diet

subjects became obsessed with food

increases in insulin

lower blood sugar and trigger hunger

ventromedial hypothalamus

brain area that when stimulated suppresses eating

lateral hypothalamus

brain area that when stimulated triggers hunger.


protein produced by fat cells and monitored by the hypothalamus; in abundance causes the brain to increase metabolism


boost levels of serotonin which has a calming effect

Murray's achievement motivation

desire to master skills; desire for control; desire to attain a high standard

leader with a lot of charisma

organizational psychologist says-has clear vision of leadership goals; able to inspire others, able to communicate goals clearly and simply

drive theory

idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state or drive that motivates an organism to satisfy the need


an aroused tension that motivates an organism to satisfy a need

instinct theory (Freud)

says genes predispose species-typical behavior

arousal theory

says behavior is based on a need to reach optimum arousal.

humanistic theory of motication

says humans behave in a way to improve or better themselves


hunger arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach; less produces = less appetite

CCK (cholecystokinin)

hormone secreted by the small intestine that creates satiation and tells the brain to stop eating

NPY (neuropipide Y)

chemical secreted by the lateral hypothalamus that reduces metabolism and promotes eating.

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

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