a state that energizes and directs behavior
shortcoming of the instinct theory of motivation
doesn't explain human behaviors just names them
few human behaviors are rigidly patterned enough to qualify as ____
instinct theory and drive reduction theory both emphasize
biological factors in motivation
difference of a drive and a need
needs are physiological states; drives are psychological states
the tendency to maintain a steady internal state
problem with idea of motication as drive reduction
b/c some motivated behaviors don't seem to be based on physiological needs, they cannot be explained in terms of drive reduction
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs(starting with most basic)
physiological;safety; belongingness and love; esteem; self-fulfillment
most basic motives are based on physiological needs, needs are satisfied in a specified order, the highest motives relate to self-actualization.
Keys study of men on semistarvation diet
subjects became obsessed with food
increases in insulin
lower blood sugar and trigger hunger
brain area that when stimulated suppresses eating
brain area that when stimulated triggers hunger.
protein produced by fat cells and monitored by the hypothalamus; in abundance causes the brain to increase metabolism
boost levels of serotonin which has a calming effect
Murray's achievement motivation
desire to master skills; desire for control; desire to attain a high standard
leader with a lot of charisma
organizational psychologist says-has clear vision of leadership goals; able to inspire others, able to communicate goals clearly and simply
idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state or drive that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
an aroused tension that motivates an organism to satisfy a need
instinct theory (Freud)
says genes predispose species-typical behavior
says behavior is based on a need to reach optimum arousal.
humanistic theory of motication
says humans behave in a way to improve or better themselves
hunger arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach; less produces = less appetite
hormone secreted by the small intestine that creates satiation and tells the brain to stop eating
NPY (neuropipide Y)
chemical secreted by the lateral hypothalamus that reduces metabolism and promotes eating.
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
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