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67 terms

Weather and climate

Test 1 over atmosphere and temperature
STUDY
PLAY
Solar radiation reaches the surface of the earth as
Ultra violet, visible, and infrared radiation
Almost all the weather on Earth occurs in the
Troposphere
An efficient absorber of the radiant energy of the Earth is
Carbon Dioxide
Annually, on the basis of latitude alone, this latitude would be expected to experience the warmest temperatures:
Equator
Between December 21 and June 21, the angle of the Sun above the horizon at noon in Huntsville, Texas
increases
Causes day and night
Rotation
Day to day changes in the conditions of the atmosphere
meteorology
Over a 12 month period the Sun would shift across how many degrees of latitude
94
Solar radiation reaches the surface of the Earth as
Ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation
The Greenhouse effect causes the surface temperature of the Earth to
Warm
Transfer of heat within gases or liquids is called
convection
You would expect the greatest annual range in temperature to occur
over the interior of the continents
The seasonal shift of isotherms is greater over the continents than over the ocean
True statement
Land cools off faster than water.
True statement
On an annual basis the low latitudes experience the warmest temperatures
True statement
A line connecting locations having the same average temperature is called an
Isotherm
Add the daily means and divide by the number of days in the month
Monthly Mean
Which of the following has the highest albedo
Snow
Which relates to weather rather than climate
Outside it is cloudy and snowing
You are located in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Between Christmas and New Years, the length of the daylight is
increasing
Which one of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere
Nitrogen
Water vapor represents what fraction of the air near the surface of the Earth
less than 4%
Which of these was NOT involved with the formation and evolution of our present atmosphere
Stratification
Earth is closest to the Sun during
Northern Hemisphere winter
The lithosphere -- rock layers at and beneath the earth's surface
True Statement
On an annual basis the low latitudes experience the warmest temperatures
True statement
Cloud cover reduces both the daily high and daily low temperatures
False
About 97% of all the ozone in the atmosphere is found in the
stratosphere
All other things being equal, on what day could you get the best suntan in Houston, Texas
June 25
Approximately 99% of the atmosphere of the Earth is composed of
Oxygen and Nitrogen
Between June 21 and March 21 the sun will shift across how many degrees of latitude
70.5
In the northern middle latitudes, we can expect the day with the shortest number of daylight hours to be around
December 21
One would expect the lowest average annual temperature to occur
Over polar regions
Perihelion occurs about January 3rd. Perihelion represents the position of the Earth when it is
Closest to the Sun
Branches of geography
Human and physical
4 spheres of Physical geography
Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere,lithosphere
the envelope of gas that surrounds the planet and is held by the Earth's gravitational attraction
Atmosphere
All the water areas on Earth. Includes oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, and glaciers
Hydrosphere
includes all frozen water on Earth
Cryosphere
is the zone of life that includes all of the Earth's plants, animals, and soil.
Biosphere
Upper surface of Earth's crust and all the landforms on Earth. Includes surface of seafloor
Lithosphere
Is a tool used in Geography that involves obtaining information (images) about an area without having physical contact with that area
Remote Sensing
to verify a statistically significant relationship
Statistical Analysis
is the study of the atmosphere and atmospheric processes. Meteorologists study the physics of the atmosphere and focus on short-term weather forecasting
Meteorology
is the study of weather conditions for the longer period. Climatologists focus on average conditions and predict long range changes
Climatology
carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, etc.
Green House gases
Where most weather takes place
Troposphere
Ozone Layer
Stratosphere
(e.g., mechanical, chemical, nuclear, thermal, electrical) - is the ability to do work
Energy
Convection, Conduction, Radiation
3 ways heat is transferred
(i.e., thermal energy) - is the total kinetic energy in an object
Heat energy
is the measure of the average kinetic energy in a substance
Temperature
is the ultimate source of energy that drives our weather
Solar radiation
enters Earth's atmosphere, it is either reflected, scattered, or absorbed
Solar radiation
Solar radiation reaches Earth's surface and the Earth then radiates that energy
Terrestrial Radiation
The day Earth is farthest from the sun is July 4th (94.5 million miles)
Aphelion
The day Earth is closest to the sun is January 3rd (91.5 million miles)
Perihelion
percent of sunlight reflected off of a surface
Albedo
the average maximum and minimum temperature for a day
Daily mean temperature
the difference between the high and low temperature on a given day
Daily range of temperature
average temperature of the month (summing daily mean temp/# days in a month)
Monthly mean temperature
summing the monthly mean temperature and dividing by 12
Annual mean temperature
the difference between the means of the warmest and coldest month
Annual temperature range
A temperature measurement that takes into account the effect of wind speed on the rate of heat loss from the body
Wind Chill
climate warmer than rural climate due to the change in surface cover (roads, buildings, factories, etc.)
Urban heat Island
can obtain a whole range of data
(e.g., satellite; doppler radar; etc.) for accurate forecasting
Multiple work stations
computers control Mega Doppler (can zoom and obtain street level data) and monitor changing conditions
Severe weather desk