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Search and Rescue
search and rescue roles such as Field Team member are covered along with exciting information about legal mumbo jumbo search strategies and more!
Safety, personal survival and maintenance, searcher, litter carrier
List the 4 major FTM responsibilities
self, team, and victim
Who's safety is the FTM responsible for?
Field Team Member
FTM stands for
Operational responsibilities and protocols
FTM knowledge requirements are
You need to be mentally prepared to operate in what type of environment
emotional and physical
Safety means you make an effort not to exceed what two limits
clothing and equipment
Your ___ and ___ need to be adequate and meet the demands of the environment
absolute minimal risk
Rescue of a dead person requires what amount of risk
the purpose of SAR training, SAR equipment and SAR operations is the
As doctors also must promise, "First do no ___"
Doing the mission. Doing it safely
You must make sure that your team is focused on doing what at all times. How should it be done?
The slowest person
On a mission, who sets the pace?
Tell the team immediately you cannot do the search.
Five minutes after starting a search, you foot begins hurting. What should you do?
Practice using it.
You just purchased brand new shiny equipment. What should you do before using it on a search?
What is your primary job as an FTM during a mission?
objective of the search, perform search techniques correctly and effectively, and your position on the team
As an FTM in an search, what three things must you understand?
fast, smooth, and safe ride for the patient
When carrying a litter, what is the goal?
strength and endurance to carry a heavy person in difficult terrain.
As a litter carrier you must ensure that you have what qualities?
Search and Rescue is what kind of problem legally?
A crime might have occurred and
Evidence may be compromised
Why is SAR a law enforcement problem?
local law enforcement
A missing person is typically reported to who first?
by legal agreement
Participation in the National SAR plan is done how?
US Air Force
Who coordinates inland SAR?
Who coordinates water rescue
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
National Park Service (NPS)
US Forest Service (USFS)
Name the five federal supporting agencies to SAR
VDEM can get what to help in a search
Local Law enforcement
Who must VDEM get permission from before calling on resources?
Answer no questions and politely excuse yourself.\
What should you do if a news reporter starts asking you questions?
The Incident Commander or local law enforcement
Who should you direct the media, friends, curious bystanders, or family to?
If you are the first person on the scene you are:
This person's job is to stop rumors and keep family and media away from SAR.
This general staff member is typically only seen at National Parks
EOP, Emergency Operations Plan
This plan carries the weight of law
This is the SAR coordinator for Virginia
The EOC, or Emergency Operations Center is also the site of the State ____
Which officer stops the search if everyone is exhausted and making mistakes?
This section is responsible for food and toilet paper
This Officer provides the family with emotional support.
Which section is responsible for "boots on the ground"
Which section contains the "think tank geeks?"
Who is the point of contact for agencies and organizations?
Operations Section Chief
Who does the Planning Section give the IAP to?
Operations Section Chief
This person is responsible for briefing and debriefing you.
Who is responsible for the communications?
This section provides a bus ride to the search
Who is the officer at VDEM on call 24 hours a day?
Your SAR group must earn this before becoming a VDEM state resource.
Memorandum of Understanding
MOU stands for:
Who conducts SAR training and publishes standards?
Who is the On-scene liaison
Responsible for State resources
Investigates Aircraft incidents
Provides resources to support SAR
Who has primary jurisdiction over a missing person?
False. It only protects you from Civil Lawsuits
True or False. Good Samaritan Law protects you from all lawsuits?
Aid was rendered in good faith
Aid was rendered without compensation
Stays within your level of training
Good Samaritan Law protects you provided that:
There was a duty to act
There was a breach of that duty
Person's condition worsened as a result
Damage occurred as a result
What four factors must be proven to show negligence?
When someone with equal or more advanced medical skill can take over.
When are you allowed to stop medical care on a victim?
a patient agreeing to medical care
What is expressed consent?
Who has the right to refuse medical treatment
assault and battery charges
What can happen if you continue treatment on a conscious person who has refused treatment?
A warrant from the court ordering treatment against a persons will after deeming him incompetent.
What is a green warrant
This Law assumes that if an unconscious person was capable of answering, he would wish treatment.
Only if the child's life or ability to save his arm is at risk.
A child has several cuts and a broken arm. Can you offer treatment?
Is ignorance to proper first aid a valid defense?
Document everything, train to a known standard (Eg Red Cross CPR certification)
What two ways can you best avoid legal problems when delivering care.
there is reasonable certainty that life or property is in danger and there are no signs posted
An SAR team can enter private property only when:
Signs and silver paint
What two ways can a person mark a property against trespassing?
There is a search attracting lots of bystanders and media. Can you legally keep them out?
Can Civil Air Patrol personnel be used to keep the public out of a crash scene?
using the military to enforce civil law
What is posse comitatus
Leave the property immediately and call base.
During a search, you hop a small fence. A man comes out of the trees and demands you get off his property even after you tell him what you are doing there. What should you do next?
If you get kicked off of someone's property, who is allowed to enter?
When that last person has been located and signs out.
One person from the search team hasn't returned from his task. When can the search be shut down.
weather, terrain, type of subject, resources, time missing, accuracy of information, and decisions command has made
List variables a search incident may involve
What issues are driving the development of SAR standards?
Recovery of the missing person
What the is objective of all SAR activity?
Is there a way to judge the effectiveness of a search?
What should you be looking for on a search?
What reduces the size of a search area
As soon as possible
When should you contain an area and cut for sign?
Looking for person out of the search area such as at home, at the bar, at a friends house, etc.
Bastard Search is what?
As soon as possible
When should resources be sent into the field?
Last, as a final resort
When should a grid search be done?
actions taken to limit a subject's travel.
Containment is what
road or trail blocks, patrols, string lines, camp ins, lookouts, and track traps
What can be used as containment?
beyond projected distance traveled
Where should containment be placed?
Actions taken to get the subject to come to you
What is attraction?
This tactic may be only used if the subject is responsive and mobile
For attraction to work the device must be ___ and manned for ____ hours
determine where the subject isn't.
What is Binary search
around perimeter, PLS, or along route of travel
Where is a binary search done?
1. Locate 2. Access 3. Stabilize 4. Transport
Four phases of a search incident
Phase 0 First Notice
This is the alert phase
During which phase are resources notified?
Who, why, what, where, and when
What do you try and determine during the initial report?
During what phase do you secure the PLS as a crime scene
During this phase, you contain and attract?
What probably happened
What is determining probabilities?
What might have happened
What are you doing when you are determining possibilities?
During this phase, you are attempting to make sure things do not get worse
The Quick Response
Phase 1 is known as:
Who is the RA?
During which phase is an incident commander appointed?
prevent enlargement of the search area, effectively use immediately available resources, find clues or the subject
The three objectives of the initial actions
During which phase are the family members interviewed?
Which phase is a binary search done
What is Phase 2
efficiency or best use of best resources
A Hasty search's emphasis is on
air scenting dogs
These dogs are a fast, efficient search of high probability sectors
Which dog searches by correctly identifying a specific person in a field setting
Air scent dogs
Cadaver, disaster, water, and evidence search dogs are what kind?
recognize and follow any human scent
Tracking dogs do what?
Probability of Detection
If subject was in their search area, there was a 30% chance of him being found.
A POD of 30% means that.
There is a 60% chance that the subject is still in the search area, what was the POD?
Forward Looking Infared, searching at night with helicopter
Define FLIR, what is it used for?
FLIR does not work as well in the summer because of
Phase 1Quick search of linear features such as drainages, trails, ridge lines - Route search
This phase's emphasis is on speed
Follow known or expected routes
Quick search of linear features such as drainages, trails, ridge lines
scratch search is also known as
AKA open grid search
Well trained fast moving small team spaced within voice contact of one another or closer; moving abreast in a fast, non-thorough search of a specific area
How is a sweep search done?
The goal is subject or gross clue detection
closed grid search
AKA Line Search
Closed grid searches assumes a subject in what condition?
closed grid search
uses large team moving abreast with close spacing
Why shouldn't a closed grid search be done immediately
thorough search of defined area for subject and detailed clue detection
The goal of a closed grid search
A visual search from a vantage point
a circular search around a specific point
Phase 3 Saturation Search
This phase is hard to control, has untrained personnel, destroys clues, and emphasis is on thoroughness
These missions are closed
These missions are suspended
demobilization occurs during which phase?
hazardous weather, clues lead elsewhere, survival impossible, lack of funds or resources, search plan and area adequate
Reasons to suspend a search
Demobilization should occur to a
Liability protection (cover your a$$)
Documentation is important for
as soon as possible after a mission
When should a critique be done?
The goal of a critique should be
All participating agencies
who should be involved in a critique?
critique, debriefing, back to normal life
What is done in phase 5
3 AKA pi X (distance traveled in a set time)squared
Formula for search area
3 x (4)squared = 3 x 16 = 48 mile area
The lost person has been missing for 2 hours and is judged to walk 2mi/hr. How big is your search area?
Twice the distance between a person and the object
place similar sized object on the ground, move away until you cant see object, move back until object is identifiable
Techniques for determining critical spacing
Three man sweep technique
This technique consists of a compass person and two others who purposefully wander within critical spacing distance
up, down, and behind, all directions
Where should you look when searching in a line
good search techniques
look, listen, and smell
Say STOP, one person calls, all listen with big ears in all directions
How to do a proper call out
Every couple of minutes
How often should a call out be done?
With three flags and noted on a map
How do you flag a clue
objective, subject description, clues to look for
Before searching in a team you should know three things
This type of dog follows the freshest scent trail left
Which is a more complex search, urban or wilderness?
theft, crime, need police escort, many places to hide, traffic, violence with locals,
Difficulties of an urban search
How many flags are put on a permanent search boundry?
This type of rope stretches to absorb a fall
Which rope is used in SAR
This rope has a nylon core with a woven sheath or mantle
climbing rope evaluation, look for their seal for good ropes
Things that can damage a rope
dirt, tape, paint, heat, petroleum, sunlight, and dirt
two ropes rubbing against one another
mild soap and water
How should a rope be cleaned?
You will be beaten if you ___ on a rope
mark it with black tape and throw it away
You drop a biner and it makes a loud PING you should:
flat tubular nylon
this is used as a friction or belay device
Brake bar rack
what device is used for long descents with a heavy load?
Brake bar rack
this is the most versitile friction device
a rope moves only one way through this device
This knot is used to join two ropes together
This rope rots and mildews at it ages and its strength diminishes when wet
used for anchor slings and harnesses
this is the weakest part of a biner
This device is used to reduce friction
Load bearing part of the rope
free end of the rope used for knot tying
this is where the running end meets the standing part
running end crosses the standing part
this can weaken a rope up to 50 percent
inspect a knot
contouring makes it easier to do what?
this knot looks like a pretzel
overhand bend AKA, water knot, overhand follow through, ring knot
this knot is used to join two pieces of webbing
This knot resembles a number and is used as a stopper knot
Figure 8 loop AKA figure 8 on a bight
This is the preferred knot for the end of a rope
joining two ropes
Figure 8 follow through is used for
joining two ropes of the same size, tie off
a square knot is used for
This knot becomes permanent when heavily loaded
making rope runners
double fishermans can be used for
this knot performs the same function as the gibbs ascender
gasoline is heavier or lighter than air?
find your coordinates
before calling base when on a search what should you do
from upwind and uphill
To avoid a flash fire, how do you approach a plane crash scene
At a find because it could be a crime you should ____ a scene
alive well and mobile
what status is a dead person
this person is injured
secure scene, account for subjects, use 1 path, report asap, document, be professional
At an incident site, you should
shouldn't do what at an incident site
never disturb site unless to save a life, never take unnecessary people into site, never speculate how it happened, never leave anything