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Computer Information Systems - Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
Internet
Global computer network originally developed as military project, then handed over to National Science Foundation for research and academic use
Web
World Wide Web, Major transformation influence; Collection of linked documents, images, and sound over Internet
Memory
Temporarily holds data waiting to be processed, stored, or output
Storage
Where data can be left on a permanent basis when it is not immediately needed for processing
Cyberspace
Entities that exist largely within computer networks such as online stores
Convergence
Several technologies with distinct functions evolve to form single product
Ex: Cell Phone-Camera, Clock-Radio, Watch-Compass, iPod-Movies
Input Device
Keyboard or mouse; Gathers data and transforms into series of electrical signals for computer to store and manipulate
CPU
Computer Processing Unit, Most processing takes place here; Usually a microprocessor
Memory
Area of a computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed, stored, or output
Storage
Area where data can be left on a permanent basis when not immediately needed for processing
OS
Operating System, Master controller for all activities that take place in a computer
Digital Data
Data converted to discrete digits such as 0s and 1s
Analog Data
Represented using infinite scale of values
Binary Number System
Represents characters using 2 digits- 0 and 1
IC
Integrated Circuit, Super thin slice of semiconducting materials packed with microscopic circuit elements
Compiler
Converts all statements of program in a single batch, resulting in collection of instructions called OBJECT CODE
Interpreter
Alternative to compiler, converts and executes one statement at a time as program is running
ALU
Arithmetic Logic Unit, Part of microprocessor, performs math functions
Registers
Used by ALU to hold data that is being processed
Control Unit
Part of microprocessor that fetches each instruction
Peripheral Device
Designates input, output, and storage equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality
3 Personal Computer Platforms
Mac, Linux, PC
Multicore Processor
A single multiprocessor that contains circuitry for more than one processing unit; More cores usually means faster performance
FSB
Front Side Bus, Circuitry that transports data to and from microprocessor, a fast FSB moves data quickly and allows processor to work at full capacity
Serial Processing
Processor must complete all steps in instruction cycle before it begins to execute next instruction
Pipelining
Processor can begin executing an instruction before completing previous instruction
RAM
Random Access Memory, Temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and operating system; In a PC, RAM is usually several chips or small circuit boards plugged into system board
Waiting Room
RAM
Capacitors
In RAM, holds bits that represent data
Virtual Memory
Area of hard disk used by operating system if program exceeds allocated space; Stores parts of programs or data files until needed
ROM
Read Only Memory, Holds computer's start-up routine, housed in single integrated circuit plugged into system board
Magnetic Storage
Stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on a disk or tape surface
Ex: Hard Disk, Floppy Disk, Tape Storage
Optical Storage
Stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on disk surface
Ex: CD, DVD, Blu Ray
Solid State Storage
"Flash Memory," Stores data in erasable, rewritable circuitry, rather than on streaming tape or spinning disks
Ex: Digital cameras, iPods, PDAs
Power Surge
Sudden increase in electrical energy affecting the current that flows through electrical outlets; Power surges occur before or after power failures, which put computer and data at risk
UPS
Uninterruptible power supply; Provides surge protection and has battery power for backing up computers and network devicces in case of power outage
Application Software
Designed to help people achieve real-world tasks; Music, statistical, etc. apps for personal use
System Software
Designed for computer-centric tasks; Operating systems, utilities, device drivers, etc.
Device Driver
Software that helps peripheral device establish communication with computer
Software License
License Agreement; Legal contract defines ways in which you may use computer program
EULA
End-User License Agreement, Must agree to online display when you first install software
Virus
Set of program instructions attaches itself to a file, reproduces, spreads; Can only replicate on host computer
Worm
Self-Replicating program designed to carry out unauthorized activity; Spreads between computers without assistance
Bot
Software that can automate a task or autonomously execute a task when commanded to do so
Zombie
A computer under the control of a bad bot; Carries out instructions from malicious leader
Botnet
Person who controls bad bot-infested computers can link them together to form this
Trojan Horse
Computer program that seems to perform one function while actually doing something else; Not designed to spread; Doesn't replicate, masked as useful utilities or apps
Keylogger
Records keystrokes to record information and records such as passwords
Root Kit
Software tools used to conceal malware and backdoors that have been installed by a victim's computer; Can hide bots, keyloggers, spyware, worms, viruses; Distributed by Trojans
Open Source Software
Makes uncompiled program instructions, the source code, available to programmers who want to modify and improve the software; Can be copied an unlimited number of times, distributed or modified
Demoware
Distributed for free and often comes pre-installed on new computers but is limited in some ways until payment
Commercial Software
Sold in computer stores or websites; Purchase only the right to use under terms of software license
Portable Software
Designed to run for removable storage, such as USB; Referred to as install-free software
Service Pack
Operation system updates; Set of patches designed to correct problems and address security vulnerabilities; Usually free, typically numbered using decimal places
Vertical vs. Horizontal Market Software
Designed to automate specialized tasks in specific business market vs. generic software
Absolute vs. Relative References
Never changes when you insert a new row on a spreadsheet vs. reference that can change
Operating System Software
OS, Type of system software that acts as the master controller for all activities that take place within a computer system; Factor for a computers compatibility and platform
User Interface
The combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other
Linux
Distributed along with its source code under a general public license, allows everyone to make copies for own use
Dual Boot vs. Virtual Machine
Utility that can switch between Mac OS and Windows vs. Allows you to use one computer to simulate the hardware and software of another
Logical vs. Physical Storage Model
Mental form of metaphors to make a picture of the way files are stored vs. What actually happens on disks and in its circuits, more complex
Full Backup
Makes a fresh copy of every file in the folders specified for the backup
Differential Backup
Only those files that were added or changed since the last full back up session
Incremental Backup
Makes a backup of the files addedchanged since last backup
Formatting a Disk
Prepares the surface of a disk to hold data in storage areas called tracks and further called sectors
Deleting Files
Operation System changes the status of the files clusters to empty and removes file name from index file
Fragmented Files
Part of files scattered on disk and computer writes files, stored in noncontiguous clusters
Multithreading
Allows multi parts/threads to run simultanerously
Multiprocessing
Supports a division of labor among all processing units