61 terms

A&P Vocab Exam

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Homeostasis
constancy of the body's internal environment
Tertiary Structure
The three dimensional shape of protein
Atrophy
wasting away of tissue
Triglyceride
lipid that is synthesized from fatty acids and glycerol
Citric Acid Cycle
process of glucose metabolism in which carbon dioxide is formed and energy is released
Articulation
a joint between bones or cartilages in the skeleton
Peristalsis
wavelike, rythmicité contractions of the stomach and intestines that move food along the digestive tract
Keratin
tough, fibrous protein in skin cells
Osteon
unit of compact bone tissue made up of a tapered cylinder with layered concentric arrangements of calcified matrix and cells around a central canal for nerves and blood vessels
Superficial Fascia
hypodermis; subcutaneous layer beneath the dermis
Hyaline Cartilage
most common type of cartilage; appears gelatinous and glossy
Squamos Cell Carcinoma
slow growing skin cancer that arises in the epidermis
Dysplasia
abnormal changes in size, shape, and organization of cells in a tissue associated with tumors
Ribosomes
site of protein synthesis
Chromosomes
tight coils of DNA
Hypertonic
a solution that would cause a cell to shrink
Meiosis
nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes is reduced to half their original number through separation of homologous pairs; produces gametes
Stem Cells
cells that have the ability to maintain a constant population of newly differentiating cells
Axon
in a neuron, transmits impulses away from the cell body
Dendrite
receives input from other neurons and transmits impulses toward the cell body
Efferent Neuron
nerve cell that transmits impulses away from the CNS
Canthus
Corner of the eye where the eyelids meet
Glucagon
stimulates the conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver cells
Thymus
endocrine gland located in the mediastinum
Cornea
transparent, anterior portion of the sclera
Myelin Sheath
substance produced by Schwann cells; whitish, fatty sheath surrounding nerve fibers
Synapse
membrane to membrane junction between a neuron and another neuron; functions to propagate nerve impulses
Glycogen
polysaccharide that is the storage form of glucose
Diastole
relaxation of the ventricles during which the heart fills with blood
Coronary Sinus
receives deoxygenated blood from the coronary veins and empties into the right artium
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
where the cardiac impulses that control heart contractions begin
Ischemic
when tissues deprived of oxygen become
Anemia
a deficient number of red blood cells
Prothrombin
a protein present in blood that is required for clotting
Agglutinate
antibodies causing antigens to clump or stick
Cerebrum
part of the brain that controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, and voluntary movements
Olfactory Nerve
cranial nerve I; responsible for the sense of smell
Hypothalamus
autonomic and neuroendocrine control center in the brain
Dura Mater
the outer layer of the meninges and the inner layer of the craniums periosteum; composed of dense connective tissue and contains many blood vessels and nerves
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
the hormone that acts on bone and kidney cells to increase the release of calcium into the blood
Epididymis
tightly coiled tube, shaped roughly like a comma, that lies along the top of and behind the testis
Endometrium
a ciliated mucous membrane lining the uterus
Vas Deferens
reproductive duct that extends from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
Luteinization
formation of a yellowish body, the corpus lute, in the ruptured follicle
Menarche
initiation of menstrual cycles at puberty
Submucosa
the layer of the GI tract that is made up of connective tissue and contains small glands, blood vessels, and parasympathetic nerves
`Duodenum
the uppermost division of the small intestine in which the pyloric end of the stomach attaches
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
the bodys rate of energy expenditure under basal conditions
Nephron
the basic functional unit of the kidney
Glomerulus
the capillary network contained in the renal corpuscle that allows for filtration during normal kidney function
Acid Based Balance
the regulation of hydrogen ion concentration in the body fluids
Haploid
the total number of 23 chromosomes per sex cell
Blastocyst
stage of developing embryo that implants in uterine wall; consists of hollow ball of cells plus an inner cell mass
Histogenesis
the process by which the primary germ layers develop into many different kinds of tissues
Albinism
the total lack of melanin pigmentation in the skin and eyes
Lymph
clear fluid found in the lymphatic vessels
Antigens
molecules on the surface of cells that can identify them
IgG
the antibodies that cross the placental barrier during pregnancy
Lower Respiratory Tract
consists of the trachea, bronchial tree, and the lungs
Trachea
passageway of air from the upper respiratory tract to the lungs
Hypokalemia
potassium deficit that occurs when there is cell breakdown (as in starvation or dehydration)
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