Any situation in which you produce or receive a text- the purpose, audience, medium, and genre, in which they are writing
metacognition- thinking critically about how as well as what you are learning
announces the concept to be explained and identifies the writer's focus on the concept- operates as a cue by letting readers know which is the most important general idea among the writer's many ideas and observations.
overviews the way a thesis will be developed
lets readers know the focus of a paragraph in simple and direct terms.
linking that paragraph to the previous one- serves as a bridge to connect one paragraph, sentence, clause, or word with another.
guide readers, helping them follow your train of thought by connecting key words and phrases throughout a passage.
the positioning of words together in expected ways around a particular topic
Headings and subheadings
brief phrases set off from the text in various ways
such as when, at that moment, before, and while to establish a clear sequence of actions in narrating onetime or recurring events.
uses active verbs and modifying phrases and clauses to present action vividly
conversation between two or more people- reconstructs choice bits of conversation, rather than trying to present an accurate and complete record.
call readers' attention to observable features of the subject being described.
describing how the person looks, acts, gestures, and talks- more specific or particularized
expresses the similarity directly by using words like or as to announce the comparison
is an implicit comparison in which one thing is described as though it were the other
describe animals, people, or scenes they to rely on the sense of sight more than the other senses
a mood or an atmosphere that reinforces the writer's purpose
A brief visual representation of your thinking or planning
little more than a list of the essay's main points.
Helps explore a certain topic from 6 perspectives and you describe, compare, associate, analyzing, applying, arguing
a technique that requires you to stop judging what you write and simply let your mind wander in order to generate ideas freely and creatively
Recording your reactions to, interpretations of, and questions about a text as you read it
enables the writer to choose words for their impact or contribution to the dominant impression-restating what you have read to clarify or refer to it
give the gist- distilling the main ideas or gist of a test
Integrating into your own writing ideas and information gleaned from different sources
Placing a text in its historical and cultral context
Evaluating the logic of an argument
Determining whether an argument is well reasoned and adequately supported
Expands on that summary to analyze how useful potential sources might be, given the writer's purpose and audience.
books and articles that analyze and summarize a subject
interviews with experts, surveys, or observational studies you conduct yourself and laboratory reports, historical documents, diaries, letters, or works of literature written by others
Peer reviewed source
written by experts in a field of study and are usually reviewed before publication
tell your readers where the ideas or words you have borrowed come from
Require writers to cite sources in the text and document them in a bibliography
a type of scratch outline commonly used by professional writers in business and industry and especially well suited to collaborative and multimodal composing, consists of a set of headings describing the major points to be covered in the final document. - comparison is presented separately
the items are compared point by point
brings similar things together for examination
a form of comparsion that emphasizes differences
a special form of comparison in which one part of the comparison is used simply to explain the other