Elements of a crime
The parts of a crime that the prosecution must prove beyond a reasonable doubt, such as actus reus, mens rea, concurrence, causation, and bad result.
The "state of mind" the prosecution has to prove beyond a reasonable doubt; criminal intent from an evil mind; the mental element in crime, including purpose, knowledge, recklessness, and negligence.
A "circumstance" connected to an act, an intent, and/or a result required to make an act criminal.
The requirement that actus reus must join with mens rea to produce criminal conduct or that conduct must cause a harmful result.
Bad Result Crimes
Serious crimes that include causing criminal harm in addition to the conduct itself.
The requirement in law that intentions have to turn into criminal deeds to be punishable.
Who we are as opposed to what we do; a condition that's not an action can't substitute for action as an element in crime.
Two forms: (1) mere failure to act or (2) failure to intervene in order to prevent serious harm.
American bystander rule
There's no legal duty to rescue or call for help to aid someone who's in danger even if helping poses no risk whatsoever to the potential rescuer.