man who designed the most common Western form of monasticism, a Roman patrician who founded a community at Monte Cassino in 520 and drew up a rule/manual for conduct for its members. His people lived in contained communities, shared meals, shared sleeping quarters, common prayers. Dealt with all main problems of monastic life- food (allotment of wine each day), clothing, discipline, prayer, work, sleeping arrangements. Required manual labor as part of the order. Core vows for joining were poverty, chastity, obedience.