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Terms in this set (102)

-While The Yardbirds would only achieve modest significance, the group would serve as a training ground for three of Britain's most important and influential guitarists (Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and Jimmy Page) and would eventually morph into Led Zeppelin, one of the greatest rock acts of all-time
By the time Eric Clapton (b. 1945) would join The Yardbirds in 1963, the group had already become the house band at London's Crawdaddy Club
-The band released two modestly successful blues-influenced singles before scoring a breakthrough hit with their third, the more pop- and British Beat- oriented "For Your Love"
-Clapton, a blues purist at heart, could not reconcile himself with the new direction the band had taken and left on March 25, 1965, the very same day that the single was released
-Clapton would recommend his friend Jimmy Page (b. 1944) to serve as his replacement, Page was enjoying a well-paying gig as a studio musician and was disinclined to accept
-He in turn recommended Jeff Beck (b. 1944), who joined the band and was performing with them within a matter of days
-With Beck, The Yardbirds produced a number of hit singles, many of which featured his innovative use of distorted guitar tones and guitar feedback as a musical device
-In the 1966 Yardbirds hit "Shapes of Things," we hear feedback and distortion effects, lending to its somewhat psychedelic atmosphere, along with several other remarkable characteristics:
-The song features a lyric that is both pro-environment and antiwar, as well as an early exploration of progressive rock rhythmic structures
-The music moves through triplet, eighth note and sixteenth note subdivisions
-Became well known for extremely loud, aggressive live shows during which guitars were smashed and drums were kicked off of the riser
-They were also one of the first major rock acts to make use of emerging synthesizer technology, both on recordings and in live performance
-The band, particularly Moon, acquired a reputation for debauched off-stage behavior as well, such as destroying hotel rooms, blowing up toilets and embracing a high-paced, drug-fueled lifestyle (sadly, Moon would die of a drug overdose in 1978 at the age of thirty-two)
-Released in 1967, the band's third album, The Who Sell Out, a concept album on which a collection of unrelated songs are linked together by mock advertisements interspersed throughout the record, met with critical acclaim and commercial success: up to this point they had been considered a "singles" band
-Townshend thus declared The Who to be a "pop art" band stating that they therefore viewed advertising as an art form: this was understood by many as an ironic response to the counterculture's anti-consumerist philosophy
-In addition to its display of expert musicianship, the album was praised for its exquisite humor, which was based on how "pop" the psychedelic era had become: The Who Sell Out has also been viewed as prophetic in light of the massive commercialism that has come to dictate the music industry
-The Who's most significant artistic contribution to rock would come in 1969 with the double-length LP Tommy, the first album to be billed as a rock opera
-While the music is clearly rooted in the rock aesthetic, it is not an "opera" in any strict formal sense; rather, it is an opera in name only
-The music connects with the story itself in terms of the structure and pacing of the songs: There is no adherence to standard conventions of form or length; there are songs as brief as twelve seconds and songs that exceed ten minutes in length
There is a very limited use of any non-rock instruments, and these are all handled by the band members in performance
-Tommy has been hailed by many critics and commentators as one of the most effective artistic endeavors of the 1960s and as one of the first successful extended statements in rock
-Moved by his admiration for The Beatles, his apparent disillusionment with the folk scene and the commercial success that more pop/rock oriented musicians had in covering his songs (recall Peter, Paul and Mary), Bob Dylan made a move that would have significant consequences in the world of rock and popular music
-He had already begun to shift away from the topical lyrics of his first recordings and into songs of a more personal nature with his 1964 album Another Side of Bob Dylan
-Bringing It All Back Home, released in March, 1965, marks the moment of transition between Bob Dylan the folk singer and Bob Dylan the rock star
-The album is half acoustic, half electric
-Bob Dylan would not return to folk music; from 1965 on he was a rock musician
-His next recording effort, Highway 61 Revisited, released in the summer of 1965, marked Dylan's full transformation to the world of rock, a seamless transformation which attested to his remarkable skills as a songwriter and lyricist
-Dylan's new musical approach included a full rock band with keyboards and harmonica and opened up to include a hearty mix of blues, rock, honky-tonk, garage, and pop, in the matchless and arresting Dylan fashion;
-The opening track, "Like a Rolling Stone," became a global hit
-In style and structure, it unapologetically cut through the all of the preexisting boundaries of the conventional rock song.
-In 2010, "Like a Rolling Stone" was named number one on Rolling Stone magazine's "500 Greatest Songs of All Time" list
-Released in May 1966, The Beach Boys' album Pet Sounds is perhaps best understood as a Brian Wilson solo project
-Wilson was exploring uncharted territory in rock and pop music.
-Has been called the first psychedelic rock masterpiece and is known to have deeply affected
the music and recording techniques of The Beatles from Revolver on
-Pet Sounds, along with Rubber Soul, Revolver, and the folk movement have been credited
with generating the greater part of the development of post-1965 rock music
-Noted by many critics as the recording that helped rock to snowball into a self-conscious art form
-Clearly one of the earliest, if not the earliest example of progressive rock
-Innovations in harmony, form, and instrumentation as well as advanced recording techniques are evident throughout
-The band's shift toward psychedelic sonic landscapes would garner mass praise in October 1966 with the release of the landmark single "Good Vibrations"
-Initially begun as part of the Pet Sounds project, "Good Vibrations" was ultimately not included as part of the album
-Completed in multiple stages throughout the summer of 1966, involving more than a dozen sessions done in four separate studios
-Considered to be the single most influential recording in establishing the recording studio as an instrument unto itself
-The cost of recording the single relative to today would be nearly half a million dollars, an unheard-of amount
-The song's lyrics, partially written by Beach Boy Mike Love, spoke directly to the "Flower Power" movement within the larger counterculture
-The progressive treatment of form is evident in the six distinct sections of the composition
-Formed in 1965 in Los Angeles
-Represent a unique conception of a counterculture-era rock band
-Comprised of a classically trained pianist; a flamenco-style guitarist; a jazz drummer; and a self-styled poet with an explosive personality, a proclivity for obscure literature, an existentialist philosophy, and a voracious appetite for drugs and alcohol
-Concoction of psychedelic art rock, pop, blues, and sophisticated—often very dark—lyrics
-The band's name was inspired by the Aldous Huxley novel, The Doors of Perception, and the quote by William Blake therein: "When the doors of perception are cleansed, everything will appear to man as it is, infinite"
-The Doors were hired as the house band at the famous Sunset Strip venue, the Whisky a Go Go in the summer of 1966
-Noticed by Elektra Records' president, Jac Holzman, and producer Paul Rothchild and offered a recording contract
-Several days after signing, in a now infamous incident, The Doors were fired from the Whisky after Morrison broke into an alcohol-fueled, profanity-laced account of the Greek tale of Oedipus during a performance of the band's song "The End" in which he was reported to have writhed around on the stage repeating the phrase "Mother, I want to f*** you!"
-This would be the first in a series of on-and-off stage episodes that would cause serious grief for the band, yet would eventually propel Morrison into the realm of rock mythology
-"Five to One" and "The Unknown Soldier" are both graphic musical portrayals of antiestablishment, antiwar sentiments that verge on militancy in their intrinsic antagonism and musical aggressiveness
-In a professional solo career that spanned only four years, Jimi Hendrix (1942- 1970) managed to become one of the most influential musicians and showmen of the twentieth century and, along with Eric Clapton, succeeded in establishing the guitar as rock's virtuosic solo instrument
-Acquiring his first guitar at the age of fifteen and ingesting a steady diet of blues, R&B, soul, jazz, and rock 'n' roll, Hendrix formed his first garage band within a year and was playing parties and small clubs in his hometown of Seattle, Washington, by 1960
-Hendrix enlisted in the army in 1961 in which he spent just over a year: he was ultimately discharged on the basis of unsuitability
-He moved to Clarksville, Tennessee, where he formed a band called the King Kasuals and began to develop several of his trademark performance moves, most notably playing the guitar with his teeth and playing with the instrument behind his head
-He came to the attention of Ronnie Isley of the Top 40 doo-wop group the Isley Brothers and was hired in their backup band
-Several months later he was hired into Little Richard's touring group and spent the next year recording and touring as an R&B sideman
-Hendrix relocated to New York's Greenwich Village in 1966 and formed the band Jimmy James and the Blue Flames, which he fronted as Jimmy James
-Hendrix befriended Rolling Stone Keith Richards' girlfriend, Linda Keith, whose connections led Hendrix to producer/manager Chas Chandler
-Chandler convinced Hendrix to sign with him and go to London. There, Hendrix formed the band that would rise to global fame, The Jimi Hendrix Experience
-The band's breakthrough in the United States came after a performance at the Monterey Pop Festival in mid-June 1967 at which The Experience played a wildly unpredictable set that reached its climax with Hendrix lighting his guitar on fire
-There may be no greater embodiment of hippie culture in music than the Grateful Dead
-Single-handedly pioneered the jam band genre
-Formed in 1965 by guitarist and singer Jerry Garcia (1942-1995), guitarist Bob Weir (b. 1947), keyboardist Ron "Pigpen" McKernan (1945-1973), bassist Phil Lesh (b. 1940), and drummer Bill Kreutzmann (b. 1946), their music was a unique blend of folk, bluegrass, country, jazz-like improvisation, rock, and psychedelia
-Their rise to fame can best be described as "organic"
-They were at ground zero of the San Francisco scene in the late 1960s and not only performed there regularly but participated in "acid tests" (gatherings with music, poetry, and copious amounts of LSD), lived among their fans, played free and charity concerts, and espoused the hippie lifestyle in every way
-Their lasting appeal had much to do with their genuine devotion to touring, performing, and pleasing their fans
-The Dead have performed more than twenty-three hundred concerts
-The Grateful Dead's lifestyle and appetites were costly; aside from various drug arrests:
-"Pigpen" McKernan would die in 1972 from complications related to alcohol at the age of twenty-seven
-During the 1970s and 1980s the band turned to using heroin and freebase cocaine
-In 1985 Garcia went into a diabetic coma for five days and nearly died
-Latecomer keyboardist Brent Mydland died of a narcotics overdose in 1990
-In 1995 Jerry Garcia died of heart failure due to his diabetic condition that had been exacerbated by decades of heroin and cocaine abuse, as well as a cigarette habit
-The band has continued in several incarnations without Garcia
-Originally formed as a blues band in 1967 by guitarist Peter Green, drummer Mick Fleetwood, and bassist/singer John McVie, by 1975 Fleetwood Mac would evolve into its most familiar lineup and adopt a more pop-oriented style
-The 1975 lineup saw the departure of Green and included John McVie's wife, keyboardist/singer Christine McVie, singer Stevie Nicks, and guitarist Lindsey Buckingham
-Nicks and Buckingham were in a romantic relationship at the time
-Released their self-titled album that year (it was actually the second to be called Fleetwood Mac; the first was released in 1968) and it rapidly climbed to the number one position on the Billboard chart
-Fleetwood Mac's interpersonal dynamic provided ample inspiration for their next album, the wildly successful Rumours, released in 1977
-Success, wealth, and rock stardom had brought with it heavy cocaine and alcohol use within the band, and coupled with the relationship tensions, it is nothing short of miraculous that they were able to keep working
-The album exposes the emotional upheaval through which the band were going in a most artful and sincere fashion
-Rumours would produce numerous hits, win a Grammy for Album of the Year, and come to represent Fleetwood Mac's best-known work
-With more than 40 million copies sold it is one of the best-selling albums of all time
-Fleetwood Mac continued to produce hit albums until the early 1980s when they decided to take a hiatus
-Nicks, Buckingham, and Christine McVie all embarked on successful solo careers during that time
-The Rumours lineup of the band would make one more album in 1987 before officially disbanding
-They have reunited with various personnel for tours and recordings since 1990
-Formed in 1970 by guitarist Brian May, drummer Roger Taylor, bassist John Deacon, and singer/pianist Freddie Mercury (1946-1991), the British rock band Queen began down a path toward progressive/art rock with their first two albums, Queen and Queen II
-Penchant for complex multilayered textures
-From their third album on they would adopt a more commercially oriented approach
Sheer Heart Attack, released in 1974 and produced by Roy Thomas Baker, brought Queen to the international stage
-Successfully combines the elements of several diverse styles such as hard rock, vaudeville, ragtime, camp, and Caribbean
-Mercury's boundless creative energy and virtually limitless vocal ability made him one of the true giants of the twentieth century
-He and Queen have been cited as a primary influence for a diverse body of many of the greatest bands and musicians of the last quarter of the twentieth century and well into the twenty-first
-Even Mercury's death in 1991 had a profound impact on the lives of millions
-The 1970s would see three more hugely successful and influential albums: A Day at the Races (1976), News of the World (1977), and Jazz (1978)
-After parting ways with producer Roy Thomas Baker in 1976 to self-produce, the band would reunite with him to coproduce Jazz
-Queen's success endured through the 1980s and their work included collaborations, charity events, many singles with videos, and some of the most legendary concert performances in history
-Upon completion of their 1986 tour, Queen continued to record but seldom made public appearances
-Following an appearance by Mercury at the 1990 Brit Awards, at which he looked very emaciated, reports began to circulate that the legendary musician was suffering from AIDS, a disease which was very little understood at the time. Mercury maintained that he was simply suffering from exhaustion
-On November 23, 1991, Mercury issued an official press release that he had indeed contracted from the disease
-He died a little more than twenty-four hours later: in spite of the rumors swirling around at the time, his death stunned the world
-Formed by members of one of Linda Ronstadt's early backup groups (Don Henley, Glenn Frey, Randy Meisner, Bernie Leadon)
-Veteran producer Glyn Johns (The Who, The Beatles' Abbey Road sessions) worked with the band on their self-titled 1972 release and is credited for helping to cultivate the country rock sound that characterized the band's first several recordings
-First hit with the song "Take It Easy" which features Frey on lead vocals and the rest of the band singing the sumptuous harmonies that would help generate their mass appeal
-Second album, 1973's Desperado, was a "theme" album that compared the lives of old west outlaws to that of rock stars, but did not sell well
-The Eagles were interested in moving their sound closer to hard rock
-Bill Szymczyk was hired to produce: he recruited Don Felder as an additional guitarist in an effort to bring more of a rock edge to their sound
-The band broke through the international market in June 1975 with their fourth studio album, One of These Nights, which continued to lean more toward rock than country
-The album earned the band their first Grammy and was the first of four consecutive number one albums
-Leadon left the band late in 1975, displeased with the direction they were taking and was replaced by singer/guitarist Joe Walsh
-With Walsh, the band's sound would grow even edgier and they would produce some of their best known music
-Hotel California was released in late 1976 and would become one of the best-selling albums of all time: earned the band two Grammy Awards
-Would release one more album, The Long Run, before the end of the decade without Meisner (he left the band in 1977 and was replaced by Timothy B. Schmit)
-The Eagles broke up in 1980 amid serious personal tension and rancor
-During the 1980s all five band members had substantial solo careers
-Another uniquely American flavor of rock to emerge in the 1970s was southern rock or southern-fried rock, a style that merges rock 'n' roll, blues, boogie-woogie, country, and honky-tonk
-Vocal stylings typically lean toward a southern drawl and much of the culture was associated with the working class, rowdy good times, hard partying, and dancing
-No group had more impact and influence in the genre than Lynyrd Skynyrd
-Lineup from 1972 featured vocalist Ronnie Van Zant, guitarist Gary Rossington, guitarist
Allen Collins, bassist Leon Wilkeson, drummer Bob Burns and pianist Billy Powell
-Recorded their debut album, (pronounced 'Lĕh-'nérd 'Skin-'nérd) in 1973
-During the recording of the album they hired guitarist/bassist Ed King to handle some of the session work: King was kept on as a third guitarist following the album's release
-The album fared quite well with both fans and critics
-It contains some of the band's best-known music including the classic rock anthem "Free Bird"
-1974's Second Helping would prove to be a very successful follow-up and would spawn several more classic Skynyrd songs, such as "Sweet Home Alabama," "The Needle and the Spoon," and the J.J. Cale number "Call Me the Breeze."
-It would also be the last album to feature Bob Burns on drums, who was replaced by Artimus Pyle in 1975
-That same year Skynyrd released Nuthin' Fancy, which did not meet with the same success as their previous albums (King left following the tour, citing exhaustion)
-For their fourth album, Gimme Back My Bullets, Skynyrd hired producer Tom Dowd and also employed a trio of backup singers called The Honkettes which consisted of Cassie Gaines, Leslie Hawkins and JoJo Billingsley
-Seeking a replacement guitarist for Ed King, the band were introduced to Cassie Gaines' younger brother, Steve Gaines
-He was brought in as a permanent member in 1976 and featured on the band's next release, a live double album called One More from the Road
-Formed in Australia in 1973 by guitar-playing brothers Angus Young and Malcolm Young, the hard-rocking "thunder from down under," AC/DC, rose to international fame in 1976
-Lineup had solidified to include vocalist Bon Scott, drummer Phil Rudd, and bassist Mark Evans, although Evans would be replaced by Cliff Williams in 1977
-Released their first two studio albums in 1975: High Voltage and T.N.T
-In 1976 the band was signed by Atlantic Records who repackaged and reissued High Voltage
-The international release included selected tracks from the band's T.N.T. album
-One in particular became a well-known hit and the unofficial anthem of singer Bon Scott: "It's a Long Way to the Top"
-The song is unique in rock in that it features a bagpipe (which was played by Scott)
-AC/DC's third studio album, Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap, released in 1976, would ultimately become the third best-selling record for the band, establishing them internationally
-Their next album, Let There Be Rock (1977), would include Evans in the studio, although he would depart before the supporting tour (Cliff Williams remains a member)
-1978 saw the release of Powerage: the album did not meet with an overwhelming critical response although it enjoyed robust sales
-The real breakthrough to international superstardom came in 1979 with the album Highway to Hell
-Working with producer Robert "Mutt" Lange, the band moved much closer to what would become their mature sound
-Lyrics shifted away from their earlier facetious style to reflect themes more fundamental to rock
-The title track reflects the band's change in lyric direction, while the instrumental writing and production show a band that has truly discovered itself and is fully in touch with its blues roots
-The first incarnation of Journey was formed in 1974 in San Francisco by veterans of Santana, guitarist Neil Schon and keyboardist/singer Gregg Rolie
-They were joined by bassist Ross Vallory, guitarist George Tickner, and drummer Aynsley Dunbar
The band recorded three albums between 1975 and 1977 in the jazz-rock fusion genre, but were not finding much success
-Tickner had parted with the band following their first album
-At the behest of their label, Columbia, they added a devoted frontman, Robert Fleischman, and shifted their musical approach to a more radio-friendly rock style
-Fleischman left the band after less than a year and was replaced by Steve Perry, the singer with whom they would soon rise to international fame
-Working with producer Roy Thomas Baker, Journey released their breakthrough album, Infinity in 1978
-The album spawned several AOR hits including the single "Wheel in the Sky" and "Feeling That Way/Anytime," which are listed as two separate tracks but were, and are, often paired
-With Infinity, Journey combined high-level musicianship, straightforward pop rock song structures with a bluesy delivery, richly layered vocal harmonies, distorted guitars, big drum sounds, and infectiously catchy hooks
-Their 1979 release, Evolution, continued their partnership with Baker; however, Dunbar was replaced by drummer Steve Smith
-The album increased the band's renown and spawned two successful singles: the blues-based, slow-shuffling "Lovin', Touchin', Squeezin'" and another dual-lead vocal piece called "Just the Same Way"
-Dutch-born, American-raised brothers Eddie Van Halen and Alex Van Halen formed the band that bears their name in 1974 in Pasadena, California
-Completed by vocalist David Lee Roth and bassist Michael Anthony, Van Halen brought rock music to new heights of virtuosity and showmanship
-The musical centerpiece of Van Halen is unquestionably Eddie's revolutionary guitar playing, though as an instrumental power trio (not a trio in a technical sense) Van Halen also relies on the solidifying presence of its rhythm section
-Eddie's guitar skills catapulted the band, almost immediately, to legendary status
-The band caught the attention of producer Ted Templeman of Warner Bros. Records in the summer of 1977 and negotiated a recording contract
-Their debut album was recorded without excessive overdubs in order to recreate the band's live sound; there were even slight imperfections purposely left on the recording
-While many saw Van Halen as a "heavy metal" band, and they did in fact help to build a bridge between the heavy music of the early 1970s and the ascendance of metal that will occur in the 1980s, it was clear that their music encompassed elements that were more stylistically diverse
-Demonstrated a facility for the popular rock genre with the song "Jamie's Cryin'" from their debut and with their first major hit single "Dance the Night Away" from their 1979 follow-up, Van Halen II
-There is also a short acoustic guitar piece on Van Halen II called "Spanish Fly" which features hints of flamenco style, peppered with Eddie's signature techniques
-By the early 1980s, Van Halen had grown to a stadium-sized hard rock attraction
-Roth's grand gestures (martial arts-style spinning back kicks, standing back flips and high-flying leaps) and motormouth patter gave the band an enormous stage presence, as did the overwhelming musicianship of Eddie, Alex, and Michael Anthony
-1974 saw four young (unrelated) musicians from Queens, New York, come together to form the Ramones
-Played their first gig at the downtown Manhattan club CBGB in August 1974 An underground music scene had been building at the now landmark venue, and to a lesser extent at Max's Kansas City, also in the downtown Manhattan area
-The performance was described by one critic as a "wall of noise"
-They were loud and fast, their songs were all short and direct (their entire set spanned less than twenty minutes), and they had a distinctive appearance, donning blue jeans, leather jackets, and long hair
-Their debut performance secured them a regular spot at the club and by the end of the year the Ramones had performed more than seventy shows at CBGB, drawing a considerable amount of attention
-By late 1975, the Ramones were leading of the New York underground punk scene
-They were offered a contact with Sire Records and released their debut album, Ramones, in April 1976
-The album contained fourteen songs yet it clocked in at just over twenty-nine minutes It cost around $6,000 to record (a relatively low price tag) and was finished in one week
-Commercially, the album was a dismal failure and critical reviews were mixed, although it is now recognized as a genre-defining work of enormous influence which resonated far into the future
-Legacy and their standing as cultural icons is incongruent with their lack of commercial success
-The band toured almost constantly for more than twenty years, racking up well over two thousand performances
-They are widely recognized by many mainstream publications, Halls of Fame, and other media for their broad and enduring influence
-In 1975, after spending a brief time New York where he had had various small-time dealings in the burgeoning punk scene there, a visual artist-turned-businessman named Malcolm McLaren returned to his native London to resume his affairs
-He ran a clothing and apparel shop there with his business partner Vivienne Westwood that catered to the various trendy rock tastes of hip, young Londoners
-The shop had recently been rethemed toward marketing sadomasochist-inspired apparel and was renamed simply SEX. McLaren's business sense, his interest in the punk scene motivated him to become involved with several young musicians who frequented his shop
-Among these were guitarist Steve Jones, bassist Glen Matlock, and drummer Paul Cook, who played in a band called The Strand
McLaren introduced the musicians to a young customer who had caught his eye named John Lydon (b. 1956), proposing that he be their new singer
-He gave a very impromptu audition and was brought in
-With Lydon, who would soon change his name to Johnny Rotten, the band settled on the name the Sex Pistols
-The band soon became known for hard-partying, anarchist-themed songs and the occasional bar fight
-Steve Cook stated in an early interview, "we're not into music, we're into chaos"
-Increasingly outrageous performances and tabloid-style press contributed to the band's renown
-In October 1976 they signed with EMI and entered the recording studio to make their first album
-Though the Ramones by this time were understood to be the main influence on punk, Rotten claims that he had little interest in them or what they had to say
-Instead, his lyrics were more political and caustic
-The primary distinction between hard rock and metal is the consistent and stylized use of power chords and modal progressions
-Metal bands base all or very nearly all of their harmonic and melodic language on these; whereas hard rock bands certainly make use of power chords, it only provides a portion of their harmonic language
-Other distinguishing traits that metal generally exhibits on a stylistically consistent level:
-Song structures tend to be more elaborate and frequently include extended guitar and other instrumental solos
-Typically, the proportion of instrumental to vocal sections is much greater and, as the style developed, an absolute premium was placed on instrumental virtuosity
-These traits are often linked with classical music; heavy metal bands adapted classical models as a basis for musicianship, structure, feel, and texture
-Lyric themes tended to focus on darker or more serious subject matter
-Drug use, particularly its ill effects, is a common subject; as are themes regarding depression and mental illness, suicide, war, nuclear proliferation, the occult and, of course, sex
-Concept albums are common as well
-Many heavy metal lyricists have had to publicly defend their lyrics, sometimes even in court
-In the 1970s and early 1980s, heavy metal musicians and, by and large, their fan base, were mostly disenfranchised young people; commonly, but by no means exclusively, white males
-These were the children of subsistence-level, working-class people who did not grow up in a world of privilege or advantage, as their middle- and upper-class counterparts had
-Metal served as an outlet for musicians and a community for the fans
-That heavy metal was perhaps the most misunderstood, underappreciated, and vilified style of all rock genres only served to solidify the feeling of unity within the metal community
-An "us versus them"—"them" being anyone who did not understand or who criticized the music and its culture—prevailed
-Guitarist Tony Iommi, bassist Geezer Butler, drummer Bill Ward, and singer Ozzy Osbourne formed a band in 1968 in their hometown, the industrial city of Birmingham, England
-Sabbath used their newfound sound and name as a basis for building the themes and images for which they would become legendary
-Images of the occult, crosses, references to heaven and hell in their music, and their dark personae helped to cultivate a mystique that would become synonymous with heavy metal
-In some ways it was a "shock" tactic, and in others it seemed quite in keeping with the musical sounds they were creating
-That the whole notion of "Black Sabbath" was inspired by a horror movie and written by young men living in a bleak, dirty, industrial environment says quite a bit in itself
-They recorded their self-titled debut album in a single twelve-hour session in October 1969 and released it on Friday the 13th of February 1970
-The album reached number eight on the UK album chart but was torn apart by many mainstream critics
-It has since been almost universally recognized as the birth of heavy metal. The title track amply demonstrates the distinctly dark and heavy sound and a band that has transcended blues rock
- Their drug and alcohol use, especially Osbourne's, reached almost mythical proportions until it finally brought the band to a low point by 1978
-Their opening act support for the Never Say Die! tour was an up-and-coming, youthful, and highly energetic Van Halen whose performance, by contrast, made Black Sabbath look like strung-out old men
-The earliest incarnation of British band Pink Floyd dates from 1965 when guitarist Syd Barrett, bassist Roger Waters, drummer Nick Mason, and keyboardist Rick Wright formed in London under the creative leadership of Barrett
-This lineup produced the successful debut album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn, in 1967
-Syd Barrett had begun experimenting with LSD as early as 1965 and by 1967 his use of the drug had reportedly become heavy and frequent, often resulting in severe dysfunction
-His increasingly erratic and unpredictable behavior, both on and off the stage, prompted the other band members to hire Barrett's longtime friend, guitarist David Gilmour
-By early 1968, Gilmour and the rest of the band were excluding Barrett from shows and recording sessions and by April he was officially removed from Pink Floyd
-Pink Floyd continued to develop along the shared creative visions of Waters, Wright, Gilmour, and Mason with Waters serving as the band's primary lyricist
-Six studio albums came between 1969 and 1972 during which time the band became well known in the London underground scene for their expansive sound palette
-Relied little on catchy hooks or predictable chord progressions
-Innovative live performances
-In 1973, the release of The Dark Side of the Moon made Pink Floyd a global force in art/prog rock
-The album is a conceptually based whole that explores themes of greed, violence, mental illness, the passage of time, the pressures of travel, and mortality
-Standard rock instrumentation, saxophone, ample use of synthesizers
-Notable extramusical effects like "found" sounds and spoken dialogue (collectively known as
musique concréte) appear in the form of a cash register, clinking coins, ticking clocks, etc.
-An instant critical and commercial success: it is one of the best-selling rock albums ever with around 45 million copies sold
-Originally formed by bassist Chris Squire and singer Jon Anderson in London in 1968, the band at the beginning of what is widely considered their most significant period (1971-1977) included Anderson, Squire, guitarist Steve Howe, keyboardist Tony Kaye, and drummer Bill Bruford
-Howe, who joined Yes for their third album, brought with him eclectic tastes and inclinations that his predecessor, Peter Banks, did not possess
-The 1971 recording The Yes Album and brought the band the commercial success they and their label were seeking
-Tony Kaye would depart following Yes's 1971 European tour due to artistic differences and was replaced by classically trained keyboardist and studio musician Rick Wakeman
-Several highly successful albums and tours followed, as did lineup changes
-Tales from Topographic Oceans, a concept album based on Hindu scripture came in late 1973
-Keyboardist Rick Wakeman would depart following the album's tour to pursue a solo career
-1974's Relayer featured a twenty-two-minute composition called "The Gates of Delirium" based on Leo Tolstoy's novel War and Peace
-Solo albums from each of the band members were released between 1975 and 1976 and in 1977 Rick Wakeman returned to Yes to record Going for the One
-Tormato from 1978 would be the last Yes album of the decade
-Critics were fairly harsh, claiming the album represented the bloated excesses of early 1970s prog
-Yes disbanded in 1981 only to return in 1983 with a new lineup and a major comeback album, 90125.
-A much more media-friendly commercial approach to form marked the band's eighties sound, although they always maintained the highest standards of musicianship and continued to work with the advanced musical materials of their most progressive music
-The original lineup of the Canadian band Rush from 1971 consisted of bassist/singer/keyboardist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer John Rutsey
-Their 1974 self-titled debut album would be the only recording to feature Rutsey He departed Rush following its release due to health issues
-His replacement, drummer/percussionist Neil Peart would join shortly after and subsequently assume duties as the band's primary lyricist
-Peart will play a dominant role in shaping the band's identity
-Not only did he bring his literary-minded and highly intelligent lyric style to Rush, his skill as a drummer places him squarely among the greatest musicians of all time—in any style
-Often recognized as one of the hardest-working bands in rock, Rush has released twenty studio albums, eleven live albums and various box sets, compilations, and anthologies to date
-Their lineup has remained the same for more than four decades
-2112 would also prove to be the band's commercial breakthrough
-Released in 1976, it is half concept album (side 1) and half unrelated songs (side 2)
-While Peart acknowledges the "genius of Ayn Rand" in the liner notes as inspiration for the story and lyrics of "2112" (it bears similarities to the Objectivist Rand's novella Anthem) he has stated that he did this so as not to encounter any legal repercussions from Rand or her publisher.
-Nevertheless, the band faced negative backlash for the association with Rand and her right-wing extremism
-Peart, while contending the individual is paramount in matters of justice and liberty, specifically dissociated himself from a strictly Objectivist (Randist) line "2112" is part science-fiction, part cautionary tale
-The story is told in part through the lyrics and in part through the accompanying album liner notes
-Kansas was formed from a collective of musicians working in Topeka in the early 1970s
-Made up of keyboardist/vocalist/percussionist Steve Walsh, guitarist/keyboardist/vocalist Kerry Livgren , violinist/vocalist Robby Steinhardt, guitarist Rich Williams, bassist Dave Hope, and drummer Phil Ehart
-Their self-titled debut album came in 1974 and got the band off to a fairly slow start
-It received mixed reviews and charted rather poorly, but Kansas had begun to build a small cult following through persistent performance and promotion
-Their second album, Song for America, came the following year and was praised for its intensity The title track, a ten-minute symphonically structured piece, was also edited down to a three-
minute single
-The longer version has come to be known as one of Kansas' masterpieces from their obscure early period and appears on several greatest hits collections and anthologies released in later years
Kansas's breakthrough would come in 1976 with their fourth album, Leftoverture
-It would reach number five on the album chart and produce one of the band's best-known songs,
"Carry On Wayward Son"
-This marked the beginning of Kansas' peak commercial period that included their next album, Point of Know Return (1977). Both the title track and the deeply philosophical ballad "Dust in the Wind" would become hit singles as well as enduring classics of rock radio
-Their music has become engrained in pop culture through movies, television, and video games
-They have continued to record and tour and have earned the rare station as one of America's classic art/prog bands