the largest desert in the world, covering most of northern Africa
Great Rift Valley
A geologic depression in eastern Africa marked by a series of faults caused by tectonic action.
a strip of dry grasslands on the southern border of the Sahara; that is a transition between desert and grasslands
An ancient city in Mali that once was a center of the gold and salt trade; as well as a center of learning
a city with it's own land, laws, and ruler; Malindi and Mombasa are examples from East Africa.
helped to make West African kingdoms wealthy
Ancient city of trade in the area of modern day Ethiopia. It was an early center for Christianity
East African language and culture developed
from blending of African and Arab influences
used by merchants across the Sahara Desert in West Africa; and the Indian Ocean in East Africa
Powerful king of Mali. His extravagant pilgrimage to Mecca spread the empire's reputation for wealth
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
enlarged the territory of Songhai and improved the government, expanded trade, made Islam the major religion in Songhai
The first West African kingdom based on the gold and salt trade
Kingdom of Mali
The 2nd West African empire to control trade routes that carried gold and other luxuries. It stretched from the edge of the Sahara in the north to forests in the south.
the last empire West African empire that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 1400s to 1600s
in southern Africa, this city which grew into an empire built on the gold trade. By 1450, this city was mysteriously abandoned.
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