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18 terms

Biology Chapter 14

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Taxonomy
The science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
Binomial nomenclature
A system for giving each organism a two-word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the species name
Genus
The level of classification that comes after family and that contains similar species
Family
The taxonomic category below the order and above the genus
Order
The taxonomic category below class and above families
Phylum
The taxonomic group below kingdom and above class
Kingdom
The second highest taxonomic category, which contains a group of similar phyla
Domain
Most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than a kingdom
Biological species
A group of organisms that can reproduce only among themselves and that are usually contained in a geographical area
Phylogeny
The evolutionary history of a species or taxonomic group
Convergent evolution
the process by which unrelated species become more similar as they adapt to the same kind of environment
Analogous character
similarities that arise through convergent evolution
Cladistic
a phylogenetic classification system that uses shared derived characters and ancestry as the sole criterion for grouping taxa
Ancestral character
when a character is defined between two different groups if it evolved in a common ancestor of both groups
Derived character
evolved in an ancestor of one group but not of the other
Cladogram
a diagram that is based on patterns of shared, derived traits and that shows the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms
Evolutionary systematics
taxonomists give varying degrees of importance to characters and thus produce a subjective analysis of evolutionary relationships
Phylogenetic tree
a branching diagram in which evolutionary relationships are displayed