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challenges in environmental studies (7)
climate change, hunger, clean water, energy resources, air quality, biodiversity loss and marine resources
signs of hope in environmental studies (6)
population and pollution, health, renewable energy, information and education, conservation of forests and nature preserves and the protection of marine resources
meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
scientists demand for this because they are cautious about accepting conclusions; making an observation or obtaining a result just once doesn't count for much
when an explanation has been supported by a large number of tests and when a majority of experts have reached a general consensus that it is a reliable description or explanation
a measure of how likely something is to occur; estimates are based on a set of previous observations or on standard statistical measures (what is likely to happen)
an experiment in which conditions are deliberately altered, and all other variables are held constant
an experiment in which the researcher doesn't know which group is treated until after the data have been analyzed (avoids bias)
neither the subject (who receives a drug or a placebo) nor the researcher knows who is in the treatment group and who is in the control group
variables that are rarely really independent, may be affected by the same environmental conditions as the dependent variable (explanatory variables)
different types of thinking
analytical (how can I break down this problem?), creative (how can I approach this problem in an inventive way?), logical (does my argument make sense?) and reflective (what does it all mean?)
policy that forests should be saved "not because they are beautiful or because they shelter wild creatures of the wilderness, but only to provide homes and jobs for people"
emphasizes the fundamental right of other organisms - and nature as a whole - to exist and to pursue their own interests
new wave of concerns extended to include both natural resources and environmental pollution
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