48 terms

Forensic Science

Test 1
Forensic Science
The application of scientific knowledge to questions of civil and criminal law.
Mathieu Orfila
Who is known as the father of forensic toxicology?
Alphonse Bertillon
Who developed anthropometry?
Francis Galton
Who undertook the first definitive work or study on fingerprints as a method of personal identification?
Dr. Leone Lattes
Who devised a technique for determining the blood group of a dried blood stain?
Colonel Calvin Goddard
Who established the comparison microscope as the tool of modern firearms examiners?
Edmond Locard
Who established the first workable crime lab?
Edmond Locard
Who developed the exchange of evidence principle?
Blood typing, comparison of hairs, DNA profiling, semen stains
What would be included in the work of a biology unit in a crime lab?
Who is the final evaluator of forensic evidence?
Sexual assault
What type of cases would you most likely find bite marks?
The acceptability of a new scientific test; the court allows a novel test or piece of new, sometimes controversial, science on a particular problem at hand if an adequate foundation can be laid even if the profession as a whole isn't familiar with it.
Know what the issues were in the case Coppolino v. State
The scientific method
What do we call the systematic collection, organization and analysis of information?
Whether or not the polygraph should be admissible in court
What was the legal issue in Frye v. US
The experience of the expert, the educational background of the expert, and the ability of the expert to talk in clear, concise language
The effectiveness of an expert's testimony is almost always dependent on what?
Secure the crime scene
After the first office that arrives on a crime scene provides medical assistance or performs arrests, what should he/she do next?
A crime scene at which the original criminal act was perpetrated
A primary crime scene is the location at which ____________
The primary purpose of a crime scene search is to develop associative evidence that could link a suspect to the scene or a victim, and to answer questions crucial to the investigation, such as who perpetrated the crime, how the crime was committed, the circumstances surrounding the commission of the crime, and why the crime was committed.
What is the purpose of a crime scene search?
Note taking, Photographs, Narrated videotape, Sketches
The most common methods of crime scene recording includes what?
In digital photography, light is recorded as a specific charge on millions of tiny _____?
Photography log with:
1. case #
2. Type of scene
3. location
4. description of camera
5. lenses being used
6. film type
7. shutter speed
8. photographer's name and title
Detailed information about each photo taken at a crime scene must be recorded how?
Medium range photography
Recording details of a large outdoor crime scene, or the relationship of multiple crime scenes, may involve what kind of photography?
Observe images immediately
Higher resolution
Create a nearly panoramic view
What are the advantages of digital photography?
It shows possible points of entry and/or exit, evidence locations. and the general layout of the crime scene. It will also refresh the investigator's memories about the case after time has passed
What is the unique purpose of crime scene sketches?
Title block: contains the case number, agency number, the name of the artist, location of the scene, and the date & time at which the sketch was created. Also states the victim and, suspect's name, or type of crime
Body of the sketch
What should be included in a rough crime scene sketch?
When measuring an outdoor scene, recommended reference points includes: power poles,
light poles, the point where a sidewalk or driveway intersects with a street, or the seams in a
curb, as it turns a corner from one street to another (intersection).
What measurement method would be best to document measurement in an outdoor crime scene?
Changes in evidence, such as contamination may be prevented by handling evidence with what?
if the object cannot be transported, then either use fingerprint tape and lift it like a fingerprint and place the tape on a lift back; scrape the stain into a paper packet and package it in a paper envelope; or absorb the stain onto 1/2" long threads moistened with distilled water.
A dry blood stain may be collected from an object which cannot be transported to the crime lab by_____________
Druggist fold
Small amounts of trace evidence can be conveniently packaged in a carefully folded paper called ---Bindle (text calls it something else)
In an airtight metal can
How would you package charred debris at an arson scene?
A druggist fold (or bindle)
A victim's fingernail scrapings would be correctly packaged how?
The investigator
A properly maintained chain of custody is the responsibility of whom?
Because without it, the lab has nothing to compare the evidence to
Why is the collection of standard reference samples at a crime scene important?
The type of testing depends on the type of crime and the type of testing that the investigator requests
When evidence is submitted to a crime lab, the analyst receiving the evidence should do what? (not the chain of custody or receipt. What kind of testing)
skill of personnel processing the crime scene
Success in the collection and recognition of physical evidence is determined primarily by the what?
the Fourth
What Ammendment contains info on Search and seizure
Physical evidence may be obtained from where?
The way the evidence is collected and presented for examination
The relative evidential value of lab test results is almost always dependent on what?
AFUS - Used for identifying military and criminal fingerprints
IBIS - Weapon and bullet info
PDQ + NAPF -Paint chemicles compared on cars
GERD - Comparison of glass samples
Tread Mark + Sole Mate- Anylzing and matching shoe prints
Tread Mate - Matching tire tracks
FISH - Handwriting comparison
III - Match ink type
IAD - Finds drug type
PI + RXL - Perscribed drugs
ILRC - Identifier of liquid
CAS - Chemical indentifier
CODIS- Biological evidence comparisan
Know the types of forensic databases
drugs, fibers, soil, hair, glass and blood
Evidence with individual characteristics can lead to a determination of common origin. What type of evidence cannot yield such results?
support other investigative findings
The corroborative use of physical evidence means is can be used to do what?
algor mortis
The process by which the body temperature cools is known as what?
Rigor Mortis
What techniques can be used to estimate the time of death?
livor mortis
Evidence of tampering with the position of the body after death can be obtained by evaluating the what?
7 hours
A corpse was discovered in an apartment last November; it was that of a 50 year old male who died of a heart attack. At the time of discovery, the body temperature was found to be 89 degrees F. What is the most probably postmortem interval?
to an absence of flexibility or vitality
Rigor mortis refers to the what?
What part of the decedent's body resists rapid decomposition and is used by forensic anthropologist to provide information about the decedent?
If the lab can piece broken glass from a window or headlight together, then the evidence has ______ characteristics.