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Life-Span Ch. 7 & Ch. 8
Terms in this set (63)
Growth hormone deficiency
absence or deficiency of growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland to stimulate the body to grow
the process by which the nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed at which information travels through the nervous system
piaget's second stage, 2-7 years; child begins to represent the world with words, images, and drawings and symbolic though goes beyond simple connections of sensory info and physical action. stable concepts formed, mental reasoning emerges, egocentrism is present, magical beliefs are constructed
in Piaget's theory, these are reversible mental actions that allow children to do mentally what they formerally did physically
symbolic function substage
Piaget's first substage of preoperational thought, in which the child gains that ability to mentally represent an object that is not present (2-4 years)
the inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's (first stage of preoperational thought)
the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action
intuitive thought substage
piaget's second substage of preoperational thought, in which children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions (4-7 years)
focusing attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
in piaget's theory, awareness that altering an object's or a substance's appearance does not change its basic properties
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky's term for tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be mastered with the assistance of adults or more-skilled children
social constructivist approach
an approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and asserts that knowledge is mutually built and constructed. Vygotsky's theory reflects this approach
involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances
focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment
the memory component in which individuals retain information for up to 30 seconds, assuming there is no rehersal of the information
an umbrella like concept that consists of a number of higher level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain's prefrontal cortex. Executive function involves managing one's thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control
theory of mind
awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others
a process that helps to explain how young children learn that connection between a word and its referent so quickly
education that involves the whole child by considering both the child's physical, cognitive and socioemotional development and the child's needs, interests, and learning styles
an educational philosophy in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and are allowed to move from one activity to another as they desire
developmentally appropriate practice
education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children (age-appropriateness) and the uniqueness of each child (individual-appropriateness)
Project Head Start
A government-funded program that is designed to provide children from low-income families with the opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for school success
gives recommendations on how to improve a child's sleep; cool, dark, comfortable room, remain constant in times, and slowing down before sleep
Barbel Inhelder 207
3 mountains task
the child's cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of the child's self-conceptions
development that involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people
the first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring from apporximately 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people
in piaget's theory, older children (10+) become aware that rules and laws are created by people and that in judging an action on should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences
the concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately
an internal regulation of standards of right and wrong that involves integrating moral thought, feeling, and behavior
the sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3
a set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think, act, and feel
acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social role theory
a theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women
psychoanalytic theory of gender
a theory deriving from Freud's view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent, by 5-6 renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings and subsequently identifies with the same-sex parent, unconsciously adopting the same-sex parent's characteristics
social cognitive theory of gender
a theory emphasizing that children's gender development occurs through the observation and imitation of gender behavior and through the rewards and punishments children experience for gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior
gender schema theory
the theory that gender typing emerges as children develop gender schemas of their culture's gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior
restrictive, punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect their work and effort. the authoritarian parent places firm limits and controls the child and allows little verbal exchange. authoritarian parenting is associated with children's social incompetence
parenting style in which parents encourage their children to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions. extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed and parents are warm and nurturing toward the child. authoritative parenting is associated with children's social competence
a style of parenting in which the parent is uninvolved in the child's life; it is associated with children's social incompetence especially a lack of self-control
style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demand or controls on them. indulgent parenting is associated with children's social competence especially a lack of self control
support parents provide for each other in jointly raising their children
behavior engaged in by infants that lets them derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemas
play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports
play in which the child transforms the physical environment into a symbol
play that involves social interactions with peers
play that combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representation of ideas. constructive play occurs when children engage in self-regulated creation or construction of a product or a solution
activities engaged in for pleasure that include rules and ofter involve competition with one or more individuals
Which parenting style could lead to social incompetence, truancy, and delinquency in children?
Damian's parents fail to provide his basic needs; he is often unfed and dirty when he gets to school. This constitutes:
the primary social theories of gender include all of the following EXCEPT:
the evolutionary psychology view.
the social role theory.
the psychoanalytic theory.
the social cognitive theory.
A _____ is a cognitive structure, a network of associations that guides an individual's perceptions.
ovaries in females and testes in males.
three-year-old Sharon can solve 4-piece jigsaw puzzles on her own but needs her parents' help to solve 6-piece jigsaw puzzles. Which of the following represents the upper limit of Sharon's zone of proximal development (ZPD) for solving such puzzles?
Sharon solving a 6-piece puzzles on her own
Among the most important aspects of the relationship between parents and children that contribute to children's moral development are relational quality, parental discipline, proactive strategies, and __
Juan and his little sister, Anne, are each given a large cookie. Their mother breaks Anne's cookie into four pieces to enable her to eat it easily. Juan immediately begins to cry and says that it is not fair for his sister to get so many cookies when he only has one. Juan is showing a lack of:
Nurturing is a key aspect of the _____, which emphasizes the education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.
The children of _____ parents are better at soothing themselves when they get upset, more effective in regulating their negative affect, focus their attention better, and have fewer behavior problems than the children of emotion-dismissing parents.
In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement:
do not change an object's basic properties.
Carl and Tulip are getting a divorce and want to know how they can best communicate the news to their young children. Ellen Galinsky and Judy David would suggest that:
the children be told that they are not the cause of the separation.
_____ involves an increase in the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system during brain development in children between the ages of 3 and 15.
When four-year-old Jared plays, he often talks to himself. This form is self-talk is used for self-regulation. Developmentalists call this:
The theory of _____ refers to awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
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