40 terms

Scientific Enterprise

Nature of Science
Persistence of Belief
Even when you are presented with conflicting information, you choose to stick to your own beliefs.
What must you be on the look out for related to your Perception of Science?
-be aware of your own bias
-be open to a careful examination of opposing views
-Be mindful of your own world view
"A good place to look for wisdom is where you least expect it; in the minds of your opponents" Jonathan Haidt
Science relies upon?
What is the impartial arbiter of ideas?
What protects against bias?
measurements, sample size, controls, blind/double blind studies, openly communicated purposes, assumptions and methods
If you're skeptical about the way the data is being interpreted, you should.
go to the source--peer-reviewed journal
What are characteristics of good science?
logical, based on empirical evidence, clear references, information published in peer-reviewed journals, contrary information is reported, what is "not known" is formally identified,
How must you assess the credibility of articles or web pages?
Looking at author: identification, credentials, qualifications
looking at content: cited? professional quality? Scientific method? comprehensiveness of data, analysis, conclusion
-plausibility of argument
-verifiability of claims (citations, external links)
-Acknowledgment of uncertainties and other view points
How does the distortion of information happen?
scientific article-press release-news article--radio/tv broadcast-word of mouth
-tendency to oversimplify
Who is purchasing or selling a product
What motivates the stakeholder?
Persuasion--many ways to convince.
-presenting pros and cons selectively. Manipulating information
Are statistics useful?
If out of context or without a point of comparison, yes.
In order to practice scientific literacy, what must we do?
-seek out the voice of all stakeholders
-watch out for selection bias
-make sure they apply to the situation at hand
-keep and eye out for cause/effect relationships vs coincidence.
Why study science??? RATIONALE FROM FAITH?
We study science to HONOR GOD'S PLAN
- God gave humans a curiosity for the natural world.
- God's gift of intellect helps us to "act" on our curiosity
-Creation is reflective of a consistent, reliable Creator
Why study science? RATIONALE FROM SOCIETY?
We study science to become more EFFICIENT and EFFECTIVE
-science and technology are integral to both Business and Economics
-science aids in the development of better RECREATIONAL equipment and methods.
-science aids in the development of better MILITARY ARMS and DEFENSES.
-science enables us to live healthier, longer lives
Why study science? CASE FOR SCIENTIFIC LITERACY? Which three subcategories?
Civics, Aesthetics, Culture
What is scientific literacy?
knowledge and understanding of scientific CONCEPTS and PROCESSES required for personal decision making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity.
What is the definition of a scientific CONCEPT?
knowledge of the physical world derived through the processes of science.
What is the definition of a scientific PROCESS?
assumptions, methods and processes by which science progresses--the societal enterprise of science
Case for Scientific Literacy: RATIONALE FROM CIVICS?
Being scientifically literate...
-enables citizens to responsibly and constructively participate in a democracy. There are scientific issues that society is involved with, and its vital to understand the scientific concepts and processes in order to make an educated decision in public discourse
-enables people to make reasonable decisions concerning their personal health.
In Civics, what is scientific literacy?
the minimal level of scientific knowledge necessary to function as a responsible citizen in our society.
Case for Scientific Literacy: RATIONALE FROM AESTHETICS?
provides people with the tools to develop a deeper and more profound understanding of creation (and of the Creator).
Case for Scientific Literacy: RATIONALE FROM CULTURE?
Intellectual interconnectedness. Interdisciplinary studies, humanities and sciences working together.
Nature of Science--What are the presuppositions of the Scientific Worldview? (4)
The natural world is UNDERSTANDABLE
Scientific knowledge is always SUBJECT TO CHANGE
Scientific knowledge is DURABLE
Science is restricted to questions about and evidence from the PHYSICAL WORLD.
How is the natural world understandable?
Natural World is uniform and universal: rules are consistent, there are patterns across TIME< SPACE>SCALE
what is an implication of the natural world as understandable?
knowledge acquired by studying one part of the natural world is applicable to the rest of the universe.
How is scientific knowledge always subject to change?
-new evidence comes about
-new interpretation of the evidence (theory) provides better or expanded explanatory or predictive power.
How is scientific knowledge durable?
Durable, but not absolute. Most changes are modifications of original information/interpretation. Process of refining, extending
True or False--Scientific knowledge is simultaneously reliable and subject to change
In what ways is Science restricted?
-Cannot answer questions related to the supernatural, meaning and purpose of life, and other matters of religious faith
-cannot speak directly to matters of morality, ethics and aesthetics
-however,science is practices according to the moral and ethical values of society.
explain explanatory and predictive power--
1) scientists observes natural world
2) Scientists describe what they observe
3) They construct theories that explain the way the natural world works and these theories are used to make predictions about what will happen in similar situations in the future.
What are the characteristics of Scientific Inquiry?
1) Evidence based (observations, evidence, instruments)
2) Logical Reasoning
3) Objectivity
4) Creativity
5) Falsifiability
6) Not Authoritarian, Not Democratic
Observations are either?
Passive or active
What are the three different types of reasoning? What are their strengths and constraints?
analogy-not relevant
induction: most commonly used in science.reasoning from detailed facts to general principles. GENERALIZATIONS
deduction: patterns of argument that reveal truth w/certainty.
How is bias identified and treated in science?
Admit that our belief systems, preconceptions and values influence the way we do things.
-collaborate with other scientists
-use reliable instruments, measurements
-PEER review journals
How is creativity a characteristic of scientific inquiry?
interpretation requires imagination, forming theories, observations that aren't obvious
What is falsifiability?
acceptable theories must be able to be proved false. Testability--all swans are white, wait there is a black swan. Refutability
Technology vs. Science?
technology increases accuracy of science
science enables innovation
What is the Scientific Method?
1) Make an observation and develop a question
2) Develop an explanation (hypothesis) for the observation
3) Using hypothesis, make a prediction regarding outcomes of other experiments or observations
4) Conduct experiment to test hypothesis
5)analyze data
6) evaluate results
what is model idealization?
computer models/ They extend predictive power of principles, laws and theories.