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The day after Lincoln's inauguration he received an urgent dispatch from the fort's commander, Major Anderson. The Confederacy was demanding they surrender or face an attack, and his supplies of food/ammunition would only last 6 weeks at the most. The day war really started, south took over, not an actual battle, but the South was basically declaring war
The Battle of the Ironclads-March 8, 1862 -the Monitor vs. the Merrimack -A Union steam frigate, the Merrimack, had sunk off the coast of Virginia in 1861. The Confederates recovered this ship and Confederate secretary of the navy Stephen R Mallory put engineers to work plating the iron. When Union secretary of the navy Gideon Welles heard of this development, he was determined to respond in kind. Naval engineer John Ericsson designed a ship, the Monitor, that had 2 guns mounted on a revolving turret. On March 8, 1862, the Merrimak attacked 3 wooden Union warships, sinking the 1st, burning the 2nd, and driving the 3rd aground. The Monitor arrived and, the following day, engaged the Confederate vessel. Although the battle was a draw, the era of wooden fighting ships was overWhat was the first Battle of Bull Run and what was its significance?-an army of 30,000 inexperienced Union soldiers marched towards Richmond, they came upon an equally inexperienced Confederate army encamped near the little creek of Bull Run -Lincoln ordered General Irvin McDowell to attack -In the morning, the Union army gained the upperhand, but the Confederates held firm, inspired by General Thomas J. Jackson -In the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements arrived and turned the tide of the battle into the first victory for the South -the Union troops retreated to their capital -picnic -union-morale defeat! -it will not be a quick war -confederate-morale boost -first battle of the civil war, people came to watch thinking it would be quick and entertaining, it turned out to be very bloody and proved that it was going to be a long, hard warAntietam-Lee began moving against the enemy's capital. On August 29 and 30, his troops won the Second Battle of Bull Run. A few days later they crossed the Potomac into the Union state of Maryland. A Union corporal explored a meadow where the Confederates had camped and found a copy of Lee's army's orders wrapped around a bunch of cigars. The plan revealed that Lee and Stonewall Jackson's armies were separated for the moment. For once McClellan acted aggressively and ordered his men forward at Lee. Casualties totaled over 26,000 -- bloodiest one day battle in the war. Instead of pursuing the battered Confederate army and possibly ending the war, McClellan did nothing. The South had lost a quarter of its men and retreated the next day across the Potomac into Virginia. Lincoln eventually fired McClellan. -1st photographed war -changes purpose of the war -war was to restore the union -new purpose to end slavery -fought on northern soil -Lincoln realizes it isn't just a war to unite the country -- it is a -war to end slavery -- then issues the emancipation proclamationMassachusetts 54thAfrican Americans can now serve in the army, this was the first unitAndersonville-the worst Confederate prison -Andersonville, Georgia -Jammed 33,000 men into 26 acres. Meant to house Union soldiers. The only shelter the prisoners had were the "tents" they built themselves with blankets and sticks. They drank from the same stream that served as their sewer. About ⅓ of the prisoners died. Part of the blame rested on the commander, Henry Wirz, who was later executed by the North for being a war criminal. Very unsanitary. Unsafe conditions including malnourishment and many others. The bathrooms were in the streams above the cook house and when it would rain the prisoners were forced to drink that water. The prisoners did not get the proper supplies that they needed to survive. They were treated horribly and often threatened to be killed for unreasonable acts such as trying to escape even though there was a rule that if they were caught they were to be brought back with no harm done to themWhat were the advantages of the North at the start of the Civil War?-North had a much bigger advantage because they had more resources and capability to prepare themselves for war. They had more soldiers/troops, transportation, weapons, land, workers, food, uniforms, they were very industrialized, bog financial resources, good defense line at the battle, etc. -A lot of Paid workers -- While people are fighting, there are still a lot more people to make the weapons and continue living normal life. Those not fighting, would continue on real life and make supplies for the soldiers (weapons, clothing, emergency supplies, etc.)What were the advantages of the South at the start of the war?-home field advantage (only battle fought in the north was the battle of Gettysburg) -had more heart - the south had more at stake -had experienced generalsWhat was the Anaconda Plan?-4 part strategy by which the Union proposed to defeat the Confederacy in the Civil War -- surround South -Confederacy goal was the survival of their nation so it was mostly defensive 1. Capture capital (Richmond) -- didn't win until the end 2. Blockade atlantic so no ships can go through 3. Capture Mississippi -- Split south 4. Destroy railroadsWhat was Lincoln's objective/goal at the start of the war?to reunite the countryWhat was the Emancipation Proclamation and why was it made? Who was freed and who was not? How was this part of Lincoln's military strategy? What effect did it have on the war? ****-an executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing the slaves in all regions behind Confederate lines -didn't immediately free slaves -only theoretically freed the slaves -doesn't free slaves in states that never seceded -military action that only applies to slave states that have already seceded -- once the US army defeats an area in the South then those slaves in that area become free -huge turning point in the war -compromise was no longer an option -Confederacy was outraged, which made them more determined -Confederacy knew they could only keep their slaves if they won -Democrats in north thought it would prolong war by making the Confederacy madWhat is the draft and what happened to cause the draft riots?-when men were forced to fight b/c not enough people volunteered --Reasons: -Paying others to serve for you -- couldn't do this again after the war $300-500 ($5600-9500 in today's money) Rich man's war, poor man's fight -Discrimination of immigrants -- did not have rights -- particularly the Irish -- fighting for slave rights but Irish don't have them?Telegraphcould send morse code to people thousands of miles away for faster communication (way faster than sending a letter)Trainsmade traveling faster, which helped people in the war because goods could be received in a short amount of timeThe Minie Balla stronger bullet that could injure the enemy moreCamerapeople who aren't fighting in the war got to see how deadly and terrible it was in realityDorothea Dixintroduced sanitation to the doctors and nurses, and this decreased infection and death in soldiersWhat happened at the Battle of Gettysburg and how did this change the war?This battle started when General Robert E Lee led his Confederate army on their second invasion of the North. He did this in hope of gathering supplies for his army, moving the war out of the destroyed Virginia farmland, and to gain politically beneficial victories. The Union on the other hand, led by General Joseph Hooker, later replaced by General George Meade, simply wanted to protect their states by stopping the Confederacy from advancing onto their land. Pickett's Charge, a major event in this battle, was very impactful on the outcome. It started when 12,000 Confederate soldiers went up against the center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge. This charge was rejected by Union fire and resulted in major losses among the Confederate Army. This left Lee and his army with no choice, but to retreat back to Virginia. As a result, 51,000 soldiers (from each army) were either missing, captured, wounded, or killed in the 3 day battle. This battle was a major component that led to the Union winning the overall war due to the fact that many of the Confederate troops were killed and the Union became stronger by gaining confidence and experience. This was the only battle that occurred in the UnionWhat happened at the Battle of Vicksburg and why was this significant?-Confederacy objective: To fight off the Union army and maintain control of the Mississippi River Union objective: To take power of the Confederate river fortress of Vicksburg, Mississippi -The Union Army created a plan to split the Confederacy in half because it would make communication between them harder, which would help them win the war -Grant blockaded the Mississippi River -This split the Confederacy in half -Tricked Pemberton's army and attacked them from behind -Their advantage was that they weren't separated like the south, they were a union blockading the river so that the south wouldn't have as many supplies -This was a surprise attack, so it caught them off guard -The Union split the confederacy in half, which made it harder to communicate with each other -Had to surrender because they were losing too many people -North won this battle and this townWhat was the Gettysburg Address? Why was it given and what was its significance?-Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg address -He did it here b/c this battle was a major turning point of the war (that helped the Union win the overall war) and the battlefield was being made into a memorial -They need to be respectful to the fallen Confederate soldiers to prevent the Confederacy from seeking revenge. They fought on sacred ground and they cannot disrespect the people who fought there -Everyone who fought and died were honored no matter what side they were on (demonstrated "unity") -In this address, Lincoln challenged Americans to respect everyone, even their opponents -Respecting the Confederate soldiers means honoring democracy. This is because it is for the benefit of everyone in the countryHow and where does the war end?-On April 9, 1865, Lee and Grant met to arrange a Confederate surrender in a Virginia village called Appomattox Courthouse. At Lincoln's request, the terms were generous. Grant paroled Lee's soldiers and sent them home with their personal possessions, horses, and 3 days' rations. Within 2 months all remaining Confederate resistance collapsed. After 4 years, the Civil War was over. -days prior to this Lee tried to abandon the Confederate capitol of Richmond and city of Petersburg to escape with the remaining of his army of North Virginia to meet up with more confederates in North Carolina and continue fighting -the union caught him and forced him to surrender -- President Davis and his government abandoned their capital, setting it afire to keep the North from having it. The Union tried to stop the fire, but it destroyed 900 buildings and damaged hundreds more -ended in the spring of 1865 -the last battle was fought at palmito ranch in texas on May 13th, 1865What was done about POWs and the Confederate soldiers after the war?-POWS were in prison camps but they were released later on in the war -Confederate soldiers were not punished. They returned to their daily life like it was before the war (except slaves were now free) and got everything backWhat were the overall effects of the war on the US?The US was very affected by the war. The Confederacy was angry with the Union and didn't want to join back for a while. All of the money that the South had was now useless because they had their own currency and since the Union won, everyone used the money from the north. Now that slaves are free, they have no place to live, no money, and no job and won't survive unless they work for their former owners. Lincoln was assassinated, so Andrew Johnson (vice president) has taken his place. The North doesn't like him because he was a southerner and they don't trust him. The South doesn't like him because he stayed with the Union and he is a traitor. This is a conflict because a president has to be liked for progress to happen in the country.Effects on Political Life-No more Confederacy -No more slave vs. free states -How do we bring Southern states back into government? -Assassination of President LincolnEffects on the Nation's Economy-South's land, industry, crops, livestock destroyed -Major gap in wealth between North and SouthEffects on Soldiers and Civilians-Union: 360,000 dead and 275,000 wounded -Confederacy: 260,000 dead and 260,000 wounded -Sports change (baseball)Effects on Military Tactics and Weaponry-Ironclads change naval warfare -End of cavalries -New telegraphs, trenches, weapons: minie balls, gatling guns, grenades, minesEffects on African-Americans-No more slaves (13th Amendment) -African Americans can serve in the military -Segregation, lack of jobs, homes, education, etc