Terms in this set (41)
Code of Hammurabi
Developed in Ancient Babylon, this code demonstrates reciprocal punishment, i.e. "an eye for an eye."
a code of conduct
A type of legislation that creates laws for a society.
A list of moral and religious principles given to Moses in Ancient Israel. Contains many principles still used today (thou shall not kill, steal, covet, etc.)
Ancient Greek code of law that was very harsh, ordering death for many crimes (including stealing an apple). The law was intended to quell rebellions, but did not work.
This code, from the Byzantine Empire, compiled many Roman laws into different singular areas. It became a basis for civil law in the Byzantine Empire
British Common Law
Common Law is the idea that current court cases can be judged based on the idea of precedent. Courts review cases and decide on precedent. Courts can also overturn precedent.
The Magna Carta required the King of England to be bound by laws. It also protected "habeas corpus," or the right to appeal unlawful detention. Provided a basis for the U.S. Constitution
Also called Gayanashagowa (or Great Law of Peace). This constitution created a "Great Peacemaker" (like a President).
English Bill of Rights
Protected certain rights of English citizens, including the right to petition and bear arms
Developed by Hobbes, Rousseau, and Locke, this is the idea that people give up some of their rights in order to maintain a society and government
Declaration of Independence
Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, this statement is not law, but identifies many human rights and principles that inform our laws today.
Basis of American law, established protected rights in the Bill of Rights.
The U.S. Constitution does not spell out every law in writing. Instead, courts review cases and either interpret existing law or review previous cases and make decisions based on precedent.
Common law judges are obliged to adhere to previously decided cases, or precedents, where the facts are the same
Punishment for crimes (including jail, execution, parole, and fines.) This is usually enforced by government
Disputes between individuals or private parties. Typically, someone wrongs another, and is usually required to pay money to right the wrong.
Governs the interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. Is the basis for many decisions of public policy in America
Pertains to government agencies. Any rule put forward by a bureaucratic agency falls under administrative law; makes rules to regulate industries and then decides cases through the enforcement of those rules
Laws passed by the State Legislature or Congress. Begin as bills before becoming law.
Laws between different countries expressing treaties, trade agreements, and other values and standards
forbids unreasonable searches and seizures
right to counsel, impartial jury, and speedy trial
forbids cruel and unusual punishment
Juvenile Age Limit in NC
focuses on the best interests of society rather than on the child's best interest.
Due Process Model
argued that juvenile justice should resemble adult court
This system was based on the assumption that, compared to an adult, a child is less mature and therefore less capable of intent when committing a crime
any behavior prohibited by state juvenile law and includes anything from underage drinking to murder
anything that would be a crime if committed by an adult
an act that would not be considered a crime if committed by an adult, but which is forbidden to children
A child can be deemed undisciplined if he or she is deemed by a judge to be incorrigible or ungovernable
Class Action Lawsuit
a civil lawsuit brought on behalf of many people who have been harmed in a similar manner.
Has jurisdiction within its city limits
Has jurisdiction within county limits, but outside city limits
State Highway Patrol
Jurisdiction over all state routes, US highways, interstate highways, freeways, and all public roads that are not within city limits.
State Bureau of Investigation
Jurisdiction over: Drug investigation, Arson/fire investigation, Election law violations, Gambling investigation, Thefts/damages to state property, Environmental crimes
U.S. Secret Service
Jurisdiction over prevention and investigation of counterfeiting of U.S. currency; protects president, family, and previous presidents
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Jurisdiction over: Espionage, Sabotage, Kidnapping, Extortion, Bank robbery, Interstate transportation of stolen property, Civil-rights matters, Interstate gambling violations, Fraud against the government.
Where a local policeman may make an arrest outside of his jurisdiction, if the crime took place within the officer's jurisdiction and then the criminal fled
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