Civics Laws

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Code of Hammurabi
Developed in Ancient Babylon, this code demonstrates reciprocal punishment, i.e. "an eye for an eye."
moral code
a code of conduct
legal code
A type of legislation that creates laws for a society.
Ten Commandments
A list of moral and religious principles given to Moses in Ancient Israel. Contains many principles still used today (thou shall not kill, steal, covet, etc.)
Draconian Laws
Ancient Greek code of law that was very harsh, ordering death for many crimes (including stealing an apple). The law was intended to quell rebellions, but did not work.
Justinian Codes
This code, from the Byzantine Empire, compiled many Roman laws into different singular areas. It became a basis for civil law in the Byzantine Empire
British Common Law
Common Law is the idea that current court cases can be judged based on the idea of precedent. Courts review cases and decide on precedent. Courts can also overturn precedent.
Magna Carta
The Magna Carta required the King of England to be bound by laws. It also protected "habeas corpus," or the right to appeal unlawful detention. Provided a basis for the U.S. Constitution
Iroquois Constitution
Also called Gayanashagowa (or Great Law of Peace). This constitution created a "Great Peacemaker" (like a President).
English Bill of Rights
Protected certain rights of English citizens, including the right to petition and bear arms
Social Contract
Developed by Hobbes, Rousseau, and Locke, this is the idea that people give up some of their rights in order to maintain a society and government
Declaration of Independence
Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, this statement is not law, but identifies many human rights and principles that inform our laws today.
U.S. Constitution
Basis of American law, established protected rights in the Bill of Rights.
Common Law
The U.S. Constitution does not spell out every law in writing. Instead, courts review cases and either interpret existing law or review previous cases and make decisions based on precedent.
Stare Decisis
Common law judges are obliged to adhere to previously decided cases, or precedents, where the facts are the same
Criminal Law
Punishment for crimes (including jail, execution, parole, and fines.) This is usually enforced by government
Civil Law
Disputes between individuals or private parties. Typically, someone wrongs another, and is usually required to pay money to right the wrong.
Constitutional Law
Governs the interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. Is the basis for many decisions of public policy in America
Administrative Law
Pertains to government agencies. Any rule put forward by a bureaucratic agency falls under administrative law; makes rules to regulate industries and then decides cases through the enforcement of those rules
Statutory Law
Laws passed by the State Legislature or Congress. Begin as bills before becoming law.
International Law
Laws between different countries expressing treaties, trade agreements, and other values and standards
4th Amendment
forbids unreasonable searches and seizures
5th Amendment
forbids self-incrimination
6th Amendment
right to counsel, impartial jury, and speedy trial
8th Amendment
forbids cruel and unusual punishment
15
Juvenile Age Limit in NC
Punitive Model
focuses on the best interests of society rather than on the child's best interest.
Due Process Model
argued that juvenile justice should resemble adult court
Traditional Model
This system was based on the assumption that, compared to an adult, a child is less mature and therefore less capable of intent when committing a crime
Delinquency
any behavior prohibited by state juvenile law and includes anything from underage drinking to murder
Delinquent Act
anything that would be a crime if committed by an adult
Status Offense
an act that would not be considered a crime if committed by an adult, but which is forbidden to children
Undisciplined
A child can be deemed undisciplined if he or she is deemed by a judge to be incorrigible or ungovernable
Class Action Lawsuit
a civil lawsuit brought on behalf of many people who have been harmed in a similar manner.
Police Department
Has jurisdiction within its city limits
Sheriff's Office
Has jurisdiction within county limits, but outside city limits
State Highway Patrol
Jurisdiction over all state routes, US highways, interstate highways, freeways, and all public roads that are not within city limits.
State Bureau of Investigation
Jurisdiction over: Drug investigation, Arson/fire investigation, Election law violations, Gambling investigation, Thefts/damages to state property, Environmental crimes
U.S. Secret Service
Jurisdiction over prevention and investigation of counterfeiting of U.S. currency; protects president, family, and previous presidents
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Jurisdiction over: Espionage, Sabotage, Kidnapping, Extortion, Bank robbery, Interstate transportation of stolen property, Civil-rights matters, Interstate gambling violations, Fraud against the government.
Hot Pursuit
Where a local policeman may make an arrest outside of his jurisdiction, if the crime took place within the officer's jurisdiction and then the criminal fled