Terms in this set (87)
According to the text, the smallest unit sociologists study is a(n)
In comparison, sociology focuses on ________, whereas psychology focuses on _________.
group patters, behavior of individuals
Rigid beliefs that are often untested or unfound about a certain group of people are referred to as:
Common sense differs from sociology primarily because:
Sociology uses scientific research methods to test ideas while common sense relies primarily on untested information
Which of the following sociologists is most closely associated with the sociological imagination?
C. Wright Mills
While walking down the street, Alana notices a homeless man. She thinks to herself, "That man must be homeless because he became unemployed. I'm sure that's because our local economy is so bad and companies seem to be moving to other countries. He probably lost his family too." Sociologists would say that Alana is using her:
Ethnography is a form of
Field study research
The scientific approach is based on all of the following assumptions except:
Research is valid only if it disproves the researcher's initial assumptions
According to the text, the Industrial Revolution led, in part, to the rise of sociology because
No one could explain why the social structure was suddenly collapsing
Beliefs are nonmaterial shared judgements about what is desirable or undesirable, right of wrong, good or bad
Folkways are norms that most members observe because the norms have great moral
significance in a society
All of the following led to the rise of sociology except:
Widespread deaths in Europe from the Bubonic plague
A useful metaphor sociologists use to explain society and culture is that society is the
______________ and culture is the ______________ of our social world.
Individuals who live together in a specific geographical area, interact with each other
more than they do with outsiders, cooperate for the attainment of common goals, and
share a common culture over time constitute a:
The way of life shared by a group of people is their:
The knowledge, beliefs, values, rules or laws, language, customs, symbols, and material
artifacts constitute a society's:
A small, premodern society held together by common beliefs, values, and emotional ties
is a(n) ______________ society
A large, modern society with a complex division of labor is a(n) _______________
The basic building block of socialization through which a child shapes into a human
being, learns its culture, and becomes a member of a society is:
________________ refers to the perceptions we have of who we are.
In response to the question "nature or nurture?" sociologists tend to respond:
Depends upon the culture the person is from
The statement, "Decisions are made based on genetic drives to continue the species" is
most closely related to:
The statement, "Different levels of socializing agents operate to support each other" is
most closely related to:
Symbolic interaction theory
The statement, "Those who have power use socialization to manipulate others into
supporting the power structure and interests of the elite" is most closely related to:
Carol is examining women who work for a major corporation. She hypothesizes that the
women will have difficulty meeting the expectations of the corporation while still trying
to live up to what is expected of them as wives and mothers. Which theoretical
perspective is she most likely using?
Bob told his boss that he deserves a 40% raise because he helped the company get a big
contract. When he finished speaking, Bob observed his boss frowning. Bob then said,
"Even a 10% raise would be fine!" Bob offered to take a lower raise because he used:
The looking glass self
Through our social networks, we are linked to:
Religious organizations, Political subcultures, The United Nations
_______________ govern social contexts to let us know what is the right and proper
behavior in social interaction.
___________________ is interaction using facial expressions, the head, eye contact,
body posture, gestures, touch, walk, status symbols, and personal space.
Cindy just transferred to a university from her old community college. When she
changed schools, she changed her major from psychology to sociology and is trying
hard to make friends in her sociology class. One day, Jack, a fellow sociology major,
says, "psychology is only for people interested in studying rats." Cindy laughs, even
though she disagrees with him and did not think the joke was funny. According to
dramaturgists, Cindy is performing ___________ behavior.
Reciprocity, or a mutual offering of favors, is a motivator for interaction according to:
Rational choice theory
Although Isabella is a good student; she attends sociology class, does well in her other
studies, and would never break a campus rule. Unfortunately, her brother Craig is
addicted to drugs, steals from their mother, and lives on the streets. One day, Craig calls
Isabella and asks her to let him stay in her dorm. Isabella knows that visitors are not
allowed in the dormitory, but wants to help her brother. According to role theorists,
Isabella is feeling:
The difference between common sense and sociology is that:
Common sense refers to ideas that are taken for granted, while sociology tests
beliefs in a scientific manner
Interconnected parts of the social world ranging from small groups to entire societies
The aspects of society that provide the rules, roles, and relationships needed to shape
human behavior are:
Durkheim's concept of anomie refers to a:
State of normlessness
According to Durkheim's taxonomy, anomic suicide refers to:
Suicide caused by an individual experiencing disorder and turmoil and who lacks
clear norms and guidelines for social behavior
According to Durkheim, the key finding of his study on suicide is that suicide can be
predicted by the:
Degree to which an individual was integrated into the group
Krista's group of college friends is considered a(n) __________ group because they
have a strong sense of loyalty to one another, they care deeply about each other, and
they receive intrinsic value from belonging.
Roman's book club is considered a(n) __________ group because they are a large, taskoriented group who focus on achieving a specific goal.
All of the following are problematic by-products of bureaucracies except:
Which of the following traits is not characteristic of in-groups?
A desire to incorporate members of an out-group
All of the following are examples of material culture except the:
Currency a culture uses to purchase goods
Ideas we hold about life, the way the society works, and where we fit into it are called:
_______________ are nonmaterial shared judgments about what is desirable or
undesirable, right or wrong, or good or bad in a culture.
Zuzu went to the doctor's office and sat directly beside the only other person in the
office, even though there were multiple empty seats in the office. Zuzu violated a:
Because prison sentences are official punishments used to enforce laws, they serve as:
Formal negative sanctions
Individuals often smile at another person who does something nice for them; however,
this action is not an official action required by society when someone does something
nice for us. Smiling is an example of a(n):
Informal positive sanction
Most societies tend to store language in the _________________ form to pass
information from one generation to the next.
The idea that people who speak a specific language make interpretations of their reality
based on their knowledge of language is:
Linguistic relativity theory
According to the symbolic interactionist view of culture:
The meaning of symbols is learned through interaction with others.
Jennifer and Tyrone have been dating for two years. They have decided to attend the
same college together, so both move in to the same dorm. In this example, "Jennifer and
Tyrone" are a _____________ and "moving in to the same dorm" is a
social unit, social process
When her four-year-old son wanted to wear a dress to kindergarten, Lisette told him that
he could not because "boys don't wear dresses." In doing so, Lisette engaged in the
In 1989, numerous Chinese students were killed as they protested in Tiananmen Square.
The students had become dissatisfied with the government and were calling for political
and economic reform. These students were attempting to engage in the process of:
_______________ refers to the layering of individuals into social strata based on factors
such as income, education, and occupation.
Kevin is a member of his college hockey team. The team is supported by the university,
fans, and corporate sponsors and is connected to other teams, their sports conference
governing board, and all of the individual team members' families and friends. In this
example, Kevin's team is ________________ and the team's supporters and connections
a social unit, the environment
As a child develops, the primary agent of socialization changes from the family to the
Which of the following is an example of a negative sanction?
A verbal reprimand
Social class is what type of agent of socialization?
Peers are what type of agents of socialization?
_______________________ involves an individual or a family with a national loyalty
to more than one country.
Socialization is not always necessary for human beings.
Children learn their culture by interacting with others.
According to the Iowa School, the reason some very religious people are fighting so
hard to prevent same-sex marriage from becoming legal is because:
Their religious beliefs are central to their core selves.
Which of the following is not a right of passage?
Turning 21-years-old, Starting one's first job, Graduating from college
Most sociologists believe that sociobiology and evolutionary psychology thoroughly
answer the nurture versus nature dilemma.
Symbolic interaction theory states:
People create shared meanings and interact based on those meanings.
Conflict theory states:
Conflict is inevitable in society, Social change is desirable, The strong exert their values over the weak
Structural-functional perspective states:
Each major part of society serves a role
It is the day before the first sociology exam. Mark, a first-year college student enrolled
in the class, chose to play games on Facebook until 2:00 a.m. instead of studying.
According to rational choice theory, why did mark play Facebook games?
Mark found playing video games more rewarding than studying
Adam wants to study why men choose to go into nursing careers. He theorizes that men
are heavily recruited into nursing because their physical strength and presence in
hospitals benefits both patients and other hospital staff. Which theoretical perspective is
Mike wants to study why men choose to go into nursing careers. He theorizes that these
men decided that the benefits of nursing (good pay and numerous career options)
outweigh the costs (working long hours and dealing with bodily fluids). Which
theoretical perspective is Mike using?
Rational choice theory
The iron law of oligarchy states:
Power becomes concentrated in the hands of a small group of leaders in
One critique of symbolic interaction theory is that it:
Ignore stability in society
A manifest function of college is:
Bettering society by educating young people
A latent function of college is:
Increasing binge drinking and alcohol related deaths
Ethnomethodology and dramaturgy draw from symbolic interaction theory
According to rational choice theory, every interaction involves expectations of
Father is a social status.
Gender and ethnicity are examples of achieved statuses.
Which of the following theories can be used with all three levels of analysis?
Feminist theory, Structural-functional theory
Inductive reasoning tests a theory by using scientific research methods to obtain relevant
The first step of the scientific method is to define a topic or problem that can be studied
Sociology is based on a few assumptions about the social world. Which of the following
is not one of these assumptions?
Human behavior is determined by the supply of goods and services.
A married couple is a social unit
Willy was unsure whether she should ask her friend Susan to help her host a party or
not. Finally, she thought, "Well, Susan loves throwing parties so she would probably
like helping me out with this one." Willy is:
Tyler read the news story about a 12-year-old boy who was caught selling crack
cocaine. "What a shame," he said. "To be so desperate, he must be living in true poverty
in a neighborhood full of crime." In this case, Tyler was using his sociological
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