DSOM 326 - Operations Mgmt - Chapter 7
Terms in this set (93)
Ergonomics is the use of computers and robots in the workplace.
Specialization is one of the sources of disagreement between the efficiency and behavioral approaches to job design.
One disadvantage of specialization is worker dissatisfaction.
The quickest, most effective way to improve an employee's job satisfaction is to increase his or her compensation.
Job enrichment involves giving a workers a greater share of the total task, which is why they feel enriched.
Trust is a factor influencing productivity.
Many lower-level jobs are monotonous and boring.
Job enrichment involves an increase in the level of responsibility for planning and coordinating tasks
Self-directed teams are allowed to make changes in the work processes under their control.
Self-directed teams help other work groups make changes to their processes.
Motivation influences quality and productivity, but not the work environment.
One important factor that influences productivity is trust between workers and managers.
Ergonomics is an important part of job design to consider when we automate the system.
One of the potential benefits of self-directed teams is higher productivity and greater worker satisfaction.
One of the potential benefits of self-directed teams is higher quality.
One potential disadvantage of self-directed teams is higher training costs.
Job design relates to people, therefore technology has little impact.
Methods analysis cannot be done for new jobs (ones that do not yet exist) since it requires observation of the process.
One therblig is the equivalent of one hour of sustained work by one average person.
A flow process chart is helpful for visualizing the portions of a work cycle during which the operator and equipment are busy or idle.
Predetermined time standards are usually based on observing one very efficient worker performing the task.
Therbligs are basic elemental motions.
We incorporate the average seriousness of accidents by measuring the number of lost-time accidents per million labor hours worked.
Work measurement concentrates on how long the tasks take to accomplish
Ergonomics is important for preventing common workplace injuries such as back injuries and repetitive-motion injuries.
The most widely used method of work measurement is work sampling.
For purposes of obtaining good time standards using a stopwatch time study, the analyst should try to avoid having the worker discover he or she is being observed.
One factor in determining how many cycles to time in a time study is the degree of variation that is present in the observed times.
The normal time in time study is obtained by multiplying the observed time by the performance rating.
Studies on worker efficiency and time of day suggest that the greatest efficiency is at the end of the day when workers are "warmed up."
The normal time for a job is multiplied by the performance rating to obtain the standard time for the job.
The design of work systems, because objective standards are used, avoids most ethical issues.
The standard time for a job can be obtained by multiplying the normal time by an appropriate allowance factor.
Predetermined time standards use historical data from a company's own files.
A performance rating of less than 1.0 means that the observed worker was judged to be working at a faster than normal rate—doing the job more quickly than normal.
Predetermined time standards involve the use of published data regarding how long various activities are expected to take.
Work sampling can be used to estimate the proportion of time a machine is idle.
Work sampling involves the use of some method of randomizing the observations.
An advantage of work sampling, compared to a stopwatch time study, is that observations are spread out over a period of time in work sampling.
No stopwatch is required in a work sampling study.
Work sampling provides a detailed elemental breakdown of a task for purposes of establishing reliable time standards.
Measured day work refers to an output-based system.
It would be acceptable to use a group incentive plan for an assembly line operation.
Work sampling provides both quick and accurate estimates of activity times.
Methods analysis and motion study techniques do not directly consider behavioral aspects of jobs.
Time-based systems compensate employees according to the time they have worked and the amount of output they produce.
Output-based systems compensate employees according to the amount of output they produce, thereby tying pay directly to performance.
Increasing compensation is always a way to improve worker satisfaction.
A worker-machine chart can help identify nonproductive parts of a process.
A worker-machine chart can be used to determine how many machines an operator can manage.
Giving a worker a larger portion of the total task is known as job:
If there is a good chance that one or a few employees could wind up in monotonous jobs, job __________ can be a good idea.
Asking a group of employees at a particular level to take on more responsibility is a form of ___________ loading, also known as job __________.
Which of the following is not an advantage of time-based pay systems?
incentives to increase output
From the worker's perspective, an output-based pay system has the advantage of:
linking pay more directly to effort.
Methods analysis is particularly valuable when it is used on jobs that:
(I) are high in labor content.
(II) are done frequently.
(III) involve a high degree of automation and mechanization.
(IV) are unsafe, tiring, unpleasant, and/or noisy.
I, II, and IV only
Behavioral approaches to job design include:
A major advantage of job specialization in business is increased
Which of the following is not generally considered an advantage of specialization?
low equipment costs
Process chart symbols do not include:
Which of the following most closely describes job enlargement?
A behavioral approach to job design which increases responsibility for planning and coordinating tasks is job:
Which of the following concerns is not one that job designers focus on?
when should the job be completed
Which of the following is not a potential benefit of the use of self-directed teams?
greater satisfaction for middle managers
A simo chart includes
left/right hand movements
Determining the number of cycles to observe is an element of:
stopwatch time study
The chart used to review the overall sequence of an operation by focusing on the movements of either the operator or materials is called a:
flow process chart
The methods analysis chart which describes the overall sequence of operations, transportation, storage, delays, and inspection is a:
flow process chart.
The symbols for operation, storage, transportation, inspection, and delay would usually be found on which type of chart?
flow process chart
The chart used to focus on busy and idle portions of a work cycle is a:
The methods analysis chart which describes the portions of a work cycle during which an operator and equipment are busy or idle is a
In methods analysis, a therblig is a:
basic elemental motion.
The methods analysis chart which describes the movements of both hands at the same time is a
One form of long-term team that is increasingly being used, especially in lean production settings, is
In a stopwatch time study, the number of cycles that must be timed is a function of:
(I) the variability of observed times.
(II) the desired accuracy for the estimated job time.
(III) the desired confidence for the estimated job time.
I, II, and III
What is the effect of an increase in the desired confidence level on the number of observations necessary in a time study?
In a stopwatch time study, the average time it takes a given worker to perform a task a certain number of times is the
Which is not a requirement for an effective self-directed team?
one or more members representing supervision
A job had an observed cycle time of four minutes, a performance rating of 80 percent, and an allowance factor that was 20 percent of job time. Normal time for the job in minutes is:
NT = OT × PR, 3.20
When performing a time study, the analyst converts the observed time into the time an "average" worker would require working at an acceptable pace by using which of the following?
In a stopwatch time study, adjusting the normal time by an allowance factor for normal delays and interruptions results in the
Standard times derived from a firm's historical data are known as:
standard elemental times
Allowance percentages normally would not include
personal phone calls
A technique for estimating the proportion of time a worker spends on various activities is
The technique which can be used to estimate the percentage of time a worker or piece of equipment is idle is known as
In work sampling, how will increasing the permissible maximum error affect sample size?
It will decrease the number of observations needed
In work sampling, observations should be taken
at randomly determined times
Which of the following is not an advantage of work sampling compared to stopwatch time study
It is better suited for short, repetitive tasks
Which of the following is not characteristic of time-based compensation plans?
lower cost per unit than output-based plans
Which of the following statements should not characterize an operations strategy toward the design of work systems?
Manufacturing technology is the heart of a business
The design of work systems typically involves:
(I) work measurement.
(II) job design.
(IV) the use of outside consultants.
I, II, and III only
Methods analysis and motion study techniques develop which aspects of jobs?
A disadvantage of teams is
team member conflict
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