Biology DNA Unit Study Guide
Terms in this set (42)
What three scientists played a key role in discovering DNAs structure? Why were each important?
Watson and crick received the nobel prize for the DNA structure and Franklin made the Photo 51
DNA is Shaped as a __ or __
Double Helix or Twisted ladder
What is the monomer of DNA? What are the three parts?
Nucleotides, sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base
Where is DNA in a eukaryotic cell? Why is it here and not in the cytoplasm?
nucleus it's too big to be anywhere else
When in the cell cycle is DNA replicated?
synthesis phase in interphase
Summarize DNA replication
Helicase unwinds the strand and breaks it apart, nucleotides are added to each and two identical strands are formed
What is teh result of cell replication?
there are now two identical dna strands
What does "semi conservative" mean?
saves half, recreates half (DNA strands)
Explain the differences in RNA and DNA
1) DNA is double stranded, and RNA is one strand. 2) RNA has Uracil, DNA has thymine. 3) RNA is in the cytoplasm, DNA in the nucleus
What are base pairing rules of DNA to DNA
What processes require DNA to be replicated?
Replication of cells
What are bonds broken
What are the three types of RNA? What are their roles in protein synthesis?
tRNA- carries amino acids to match mRNA mRNA- carries genetic info
rRNA- forms with protein and ribosomes
What is a chromosome? What is a gene?
DNA wrapped around histones, and hereditary carrying piece
DNA and Proteins in the nucleus
What are histones
proteins formed in eukaryotic cell that package and order DNA
What is protein synthesis?
When mRNA translates to make protein
What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
Explain the process of transcription, where does it happen, why it happens, and how
DNA is made into a smaller copy and unwound, then mRNA copies and leaves the nucleus
Explain translation- how, why, when, where, what starts it, and when it ends
In translation, mRNA is decoded into Amino Acids, that form proteins. It happens in ribosomes and ends when it hits a stop codon.
What is a codon?
3 nucleotides on mRNA
What is an anticodon?
the complementary strand to codons, made of TRNA
What builds a protein?
What does the order of DNA bases determine when making a protein?
What is a stop codon? What does it stop?
It's a strand of three nucleotides on mRNA. It stops the making of a protein
What is a mutation? What could cause them?
When DNA strands are copied wrong. Mess ups by DNA or any piece of replication
Why is the DNA code considered universal?
All living things are made of DNA
What is an enzyme? Which enzyme is important in this chapter?
Enzymes are catalysts for reactions. Helicase
With phosphates, makes the sides of the "twisted ladder"
With Deoxyribose, makes the sides of the "twisted ladder"
A goes with T, G with C. Make up rungs of "ladder"
Half a base with a deoxyribose and a phosphate
Shape of the DNA
Hold bases together
Why is it possible for an amino acid to be specified by more than one kind of protein
It's a failsafe for mutation
How many amino acids are there?
The cell uses info from mRNA to produce
During translation, the tupw of amino acid that is added to th egrowing polypeptide depends on the ______ on the mRNA and the ________ on the tRNA to which the amino acid is attached
where does translation take place?
What bases are on the end of the twisted strands?
What do the strands and bases connect to in translation
What are the twisted strands in translation?
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