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Chapter 26 Hormones and the Endocrine System
Terms in this set (50)
Part of the adrenal gland that produces three mayor groups of steroid hormones called corticosteroids.
An endocrine gland located adjacent to the kidney in mammals; composed of two glandular portions: an outer cortex, which responds to endocrine signals in reacting to stress and effecting salt and water balance, and a central medulla, which responds to nervous inputs resulting from stress.
The inner region of the adrenal gland. The adrenal medulla is part of the sympathetic nervous system, and releases epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine into the blood when stimulated. These hormones augment and prolong the effects of sympathetic stimulation in the body.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
A tropic hormone that is produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary and that stimulates the production and secretion of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex.
male sex hormone that is produced in the testes and responsible for typical male sexual characteristics
hormones that have opposing physiological properties, but that work together. Ex. insulin & glucagon have opposite effects on blood sugar levels.
Other hormone pairs:
Parathyroid & Calcitonin
Melanocyte & Melatonin
Oxytocin & Pitocin
produces and secretes several peptide hormones that regulate many physiological processes including stress, growth, and reproduction
Produced by the thyroid gland and decreases the blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium deposit in the bones. The antagonist of the parathyroid hormone.
stress hormone that activates the body and prepares us to respond to stressful circumstances
condition that occurs when the pancreas produces too little insulin, resulting in an increase in the level of blood glucose
a ductless gland that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Any of several hormones produced in the brain and anterior pituitary that inhibits pain perception.
adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
The antagonist of insulin. Its release is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, its primary target organ, to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and subsequently to release glucose to the blood.
steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates glucose, fat, and protein metabolism.
enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation (goiter = throat)
female or male reproductive organ that produces sex cells and hormones; ovary or testis
growth hormone (GH)
ANTERIOR PITUITARY: increases bone and muscle growth, increases cell turnover rate
a chemical that serves as a messenger. Each hormone is secreted by a gland and travels to one or more target organs, where it brings about responses.
abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
A kind of hormone released from the hypothalamus that makes the anterior pituitary stop secreting hormone
Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.
A secreted molecule that influences cells near where it is secreted.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.
A specialized nerve cell that releases a hormone into the bloodstream in response to signals from other nerve cells; located in the hypothalamus and adrenal medulla.
noradrenaline; chemical which is excitatory, similar to adrenaline, and affects arousal and memory; raises blood pressure by causing blood vessels to become constricted, but also carried by bloodstream to the anterior pituitary which relaxes ACTH thus prolonging stress response
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
there are four and they are embedded in the surface of the thyroid, function in the homeostasis of calcium ions. They secrete Parathyroid hormone (PTH), which raises blood levels of calcium and thus has an effect opposite to that of the thyroid hormone calcitonin.
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
increases blood calcium levels; stimulates kidneys & intestines to absorb more calcium; breaks down bones
located in the center of the brain, functioning to secrete melatonin and serotonin
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
aka neurohypophysis; does not synthesize hormones; stores and releases peptide hormones oxytocin and ADH which are produced by neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus; hormone secretion is stimulated by action potentials from hypothalamus.
female hormone that stimulates the uterine lining during pregnancy and is also used in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding and for hormone replacement therapy
promotes development of glandular tissue during pregnancy and produces milk after birth of an infant
hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that regulates the release of other hormones from the anterior pituitary
A hormone derived from cholesterol. Steroids are generally hydrophobic and can easily cross the plasma membrane of cells, thus receptors for steroids are found intracellularly. Once this steroid binds to its receptor, the receptor-steroid complex acts to regulate transcription in the nucleus.
Any cell that is acted on directly by effector T cells, effector cells or molecules. For example, virus-infected cells are the targets of cytotoxic T cells, which kill them, and naive B cells are the targets of effector CD4 T cells, which help to stimulate them to produce antibodies.
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
hormone released by the hypothalamus that controls the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary.
thyroid gland; regulates growth and development of the body and controls metabolism and body temperature.
large gland in the front of the neck, it secretes hormones which regulate growth and metabolism
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
A tropic hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that targets the thyroid gland, stimulating it to produce and release thyroid hormone.
a blood study that gives the direct measurement of the amount of thyroxine in the patient's blood; a greater-than-normal amount indicates hyperthyroidism; a less-than-normal amount indicates hypotheroidism
An endocrine gland located in the upper mediastinum that assists the body with the immune function and the development of antibodies. As part of the immune response it secretes a hormone, thymosin, that changes lymphocytes to T cells.
disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos.
overactive thyroid gland
condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity
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