25 terms

Biology Miller Levine Chapter 15

Biology Unit 4 Chapter 15
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Selective Breeding
method of breeding that allows only the organisms with desired characteristics for the next generation.
Hybridization
breeding technique that involves crossing different individuals to get best traits from both organisms.
Inbreeding
continued breeding with similar individuals in order to keep their traits.
Biotechnology
process of manipulating organisms, cells, or molecules, to produce specific things.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
technique of making many copies of one gene
Recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources.
Plasmid
small, circular pieces of DNA located in the cytoplasm of bacteria.
Genetic Marker
alleles that produce phenotypic differences in order to locate cells in DNA.
Transgenic
an organism containing genes from another organism.
Clone
a member of population with genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
Gene Therapy
process of changing a gene to treat a disorder.
DNA Microarry
glass slides that have single-stranded DNA. Used to show expression of genes.
DNA Fingerprinting
tool used by biologists that analyzes individual's unique collection of DNA fragments.
Forensics
scientific study of crime scene evidence.
hybrid
the mating of two homozygous individuals.
Hybridization vs. Inbreeding
hybridization: crossing two different individuals to get desired traits
Inbreeding: only mating organisms with desired traits in order to keep trait.
Problem With Inbreeding
It is risky because of the similarities and risk of genetic defect in crossing.
Process of Making Recombinant DNA
1. The DNA fragment to be copied is split into individual strands.
2. Primers are added to the individual strands.
3. Complimentary strands are created using nucleotides.
4. Four copies are created.
EcoR1 and BamH1
sequences that cut DNA at certain parts of the DNA sequence.
GM Plants
Genetically modified plants.
Pros and Cons of GM Plants
pros:
-more nutrients
-resistant to bugs

cons:
-super weed
-need more poison in order to kill
GM Animals
Genetically modified animals.
Why is DNA fingerprinting so effective?
Because no two people (omitting twins) have the same genetic make up.
Forms of Genetic Engineering
-golden rice
-cows producing more milk/meat
-pigs with less fatty fats
How can DNA fingerprinting be used?
In crime investigations, can be used to compare DNA samples.
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