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Ch. 5 - Medical Terminology

Chapter 5 - Respiratory System Book: Exploring Medical Language 8th Edition (ISBN: 9780323073080)
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Lined with mucous membrane and fine hairs; it acts as a filter to moisten and warm the entering air
Nose
Partition separating the right and left nasal cavities
Nasal septum
Air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavaties
Paranasal sinuses
Serves as a food and air passageway. Air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus (also called the throat)
Pharynx
Lymphoid tissue located behind the nasal cavity
Adenoids
Lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth
Tonsils
Location of the vocal cords. Air enters from the pharynx (also called the voice box)
Larynx
Flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing
Epiglottis
Passageway for air to the bronchi (also called the windpipe)
Trachea
One of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides. The branchings resemble a tree; therefore, they are referred to as a bronchial tree)
Bronchus (pl. bronchi)
Smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree
Bronchioles
Air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries
Alveolus (pl. alveoli)
Two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity. The right lung consists of 3 lobes, and the left lung has 2 lobes
Lungs
Double-folded serous membrane covering each lung and lining the thoracic cavity with a small space between, called the pleural cavity, which contains serous fluid
Pleura
Muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It aids in the breathing process by contracting and pulling air in, then relaxing and pushing air out.
Diaphragm
Space between the lungs. It contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, great blood vessels, and other structures.
Mediastinum
adenoid/o
adenoids
alveol/o
alveolus
bronchi/o
bronchus
bronch/o
bronchus
diaphragmat/o
diaphragm
phren/o
diaphragm
epiglott
epiglottis
laryng/o
larynx
lob/o
lobe
nas/o
nose
rhin/o
nose
pharyng/o
pharynx
pleur/o
pleura
pneum/o
lung, air
pneumat/o
lung, air
pneumon/o
lung, air
pulmon/o
lung
sept/o
septum (wall off, fence)
sinus/o
sinus
thorac/o
thorax (chest)
tonsill/o
tonsil
trache/o
trachea
atel/o
imperfect, incomplete
capn/o
carbon dioxide
hem/o
blood
hemat/o
blood
muc/o
mucus
orth/o
straight
ox/i, ox/o
oxygen
phon/o
sound, voice
py/o
pus
somn/o
sleep
spir/o
breathe, breathing
a-, an-
absence of, without
endo-
wthin
eu-
normal, good
pan-
all, total
poly-
many, much
tachy-
fast, rapid
-algia
pain
-ar
pertaining to
-ary
pertaining to
-eal
pertaining to
-cele
hernia or protrusion
-centesis
surgical puncture to aspirate fluid (with a sterile needle)
-ectasis
stretching out, dilatation, expansion
-emia
blood condition
-graphy
process of recording, radiographic imaging
-meter
instrument used to measure
-metry
measurement
-pexy
surgical fixation, suspension
-pnea
breathing
-rrhagia
rapid flow of blood
-scope
instrument used for visual examination
-scopic
pertaining to visual examination
-scopy
visual examination
-spasm
sudden, involuntary muscle contraction (spasmodic contraction)
-stenosis
constriction or narrowing
-stomy
creation of an artificial opening
-thorax
chest
-tomy
cut into or incision
inflammation of the adenoids
adenoiditis
inflammation of the alveolus
alveolitis
incomplete expansion (of the lung or portion of the lung)
atelectasis
dilation of the bronchi
bronchiectasis
inflammation of the bronchi
bronchitis
cancerous tumor originating in a bronchus
bronchogenic carcinoma
diseased state of the bronchi and lungs (usually caused by infection)
bronchopneumonia
hernia of the diaphragm
diaphragmatocele
inflammation of the epiglottis
epiglottitis
blood in the chest (pleural space)
hemothorax
inflammation of the larynx
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi (the acute form is called croup)
laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)
pertaining to the lobe(s); diseased state of the lung (infection of one or more lobes of the lung)
lobar pneumonia
inflammation of the nose and pharynx
nasopharyngitis
inflammation of all sinuses
pansinusitis
inflammation of the pharynx
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pleura (also called pleurisy)
pleuritis
hernia of the lung (lung tissue protrudes through an opening in the chest)
pneumatocele
abnormal condition of dust in the lungs
pneumoconiosis
diseased state of the lung (the infection and inflammation are caused by bacteria such as Pneumococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus; viruses; and fungi)
pneumonia
inflammation of the lung
pneumonitis
air in the chest (pleural space), which causes collapse of the lung (often a result of an open chest wound)
pneumothorax
pertaining to (in) the lung, new growth (tumor)
pulmonary neoplasm
pus in the chest (pleural space) (also called empyema)
pyothorax
inflammation of the (mucous membranes) nose
rhinitis
abnormal condition of fungus in the nose
rhinomycosis
rapid flow of blood from the nose (also called epistaxis)
rhinorrhagia
pain in the chest
thoracalgia
inflammation of the tonsils
tonsillitis
inflammation of the trachea
tracheitis
narrowing of the trachea
tracheostenosis
respiratory failure as a result of disease or injury. symptoms include dyspea, tachypnea, and cyanosis
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, which is caused by constriction of airways that is reversible between attacks
asthma
a progressive lung disease that restricts air flow, which makes breathing difficult. chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two main components of COPD, but it may also be caused by chronic asthmatic bronchitis. most COPD is a result of cigarette smoking.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
fungal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body (also called valley fever or cocci)
coccidioidomycosis
serious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders, such as emphysema
cor pulmonale
condition resulting from acute obstruction of the larynx, characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, and stridor. it may be caused by viral or bacterial infection, allergy, or foreign body. occurs mainly in children.
croup
hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency, and other symptoms
cystic fibrosis (CF)
one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformation or injury of the nasal septum
deviated septum
stretching of lung tissue caused by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity
emphysema
nosebleed (synonymous wth rhinorrhagia)
epistaxis
highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus (also called flu)
influenza
a lobar pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella Pneumophila
Legionnaire disease
repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing; can produce daytime drowsiness and elevated blood pressure
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (also called whooping cough)
pertussis
fluid in the pleural space caused by a disease process or trauma
pleural effusion
fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles
pulmonary edema
matter foreign to the circulation, carried to the pulmonary artery and its branches, where it blocks circulation to the lungs and can be fatal if of sufficient size or number. blood clots broken loose from the deep veins of the lower extremeties are the most common source of emboli
pulmonary embolism (PE)
an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs
tuberculosis (TB)
infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx (commonly called a cold)
upper respiratory infection (URI)
excision of the adenoids
adenoidectomy
surgical instrument used to cut the adenoids
adenotome
surgical repair of a bronchus
bronchoplasty
excision of the larynx
laryngectomy
surgical repair of the larynx
laryngoplasty
creation of an artificial opening into the larynx
laryngostomy
incision of the larynx and trachea
laryngotracheotomy
excision of a lobe (of the lung)
lobectomy
surgical fixation of the pleura
pleuroplexy
incision of lung and bronchus
pneumobronchotomy
excision of a lung
pneumonectomy
surgical repair of the nose
rhinoplasty
surgical repair of the (nasal) septum
septoplasty
incision into the (nasal) septum
septotomy
incision of a sinus
sinusotomy
surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity (also called thoracentasis)
thoracocentesis
incision into the chest cavity
thoracotomy
excision of the tonsils
tonsillectomy
surgical repair of the trachea
tracheoplasty