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Lined with mucous membrane and fine hairs; it acts as a filter to moisten and warm the entering air
Serves as a food and air passageway. Air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus (also called the throat)
Flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing
One of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides. The branchings resemble a tree; therefore, they are referred to as a bronchial tree)
Bronchus (pl. bronchi)
Air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries
Alveolus (pl. alveoli)
Two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity. The right lung consists of 3 lobes, and the left lung has 2 lobes
Double-folded serous membrane covering each lung and lining the thoracic cavity with a small space between, called the pleural cavity, which contains serous fluid
Muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It aids in the breathing process by contracting and pulling air in, then relaxing and pushing air out.
Space between the lungs. It contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, great blood vessels, and other structures.
inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi (the acute form is called croup)
pertaining to the lobe(s); diseased state of the lung (infection of one or more lobes of the lung)
diseased state of the lung (the infection and inflammation are caused by bacteria such as Pneumococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus; viruses; and fungi)
air in the chest (pleural space), which causes collapse of the lung (often a result of an open chest wound)
respiratory failure as a result of disease or injury. symptoms include dyspea, tachypnea, and cyanosis
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, which is caused by constriction of airways that is reversible between attacks
a progressive lung disease that restricts air flow, which makes breathing difficult. chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two main components of COPD, but it may also be caused by chronic asthmatic bronchitis. most COPD is a result of cigarette smoking.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
fungal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body (also called valley fever or cocci)
condition resulting from acute obstruction of the larynx, characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, and stridor. it may be caused by viral or bacterial infection, allergy, or foreign body. occurs mainly in children.
hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency, and other symptoms
cystic fibrosis (CF)
one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformation or injury of the nasal septum
repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing; can produce daytime drowsiness and elevated blood pressure
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (also called whooping cough)
matter foreign to the circulation, carried to the pulmonary artery and its branches, where it blocks circulation to the lungs and can be fatal if of sufficient size or number. blood clots broken loose from the deep veins of the lower extremeties are the most common source of emboli
pulmonary embolism (PE)
an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs
infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx (commonly called a cold)
upper respiratory infection (URI)
surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity (also called thoracentasis)
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