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Terms in this set (62)
a nerve cell that is specialized for intercellular communication; consists of a cell body, axon and dendrite.
cells of the nervous system which support and protect neurons, also called glial cells.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
consists of the cranial and spinal nerves and all other nervous tissue outside the CNS.
Afferent division of the PNS
sensory tracts that carry information to the CNS.
Efferent division of the PNS
motor tracts that carry information away from the CNS to the effector (muscles, glands or adipose tissue).
are sensory structures that detect changes or stimuli.
a gland, muscle or adipose tissue that is innervated by a neuron and produces a response when stimulated.
Somatic nervous system
efferent division of the nervous system, it innervates or controls skeletal muscle both voluntary and involuntary.
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
provides automatic regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular secretions. It is a division of the PNS.
dominates in stressful situations
dominates in relaxing or non-stressful situations
contains the nucleus.
a cellular process that carries impulses toward the cell body.
cellular process that carries impulses away from the cell body.
the site of communication between a neuron and another cell.
a chemical released by a neuron that affects the transmembrane potential of another cell. Ex: ACh
a synapse between a neuron and a muscle cell.
the synapse between a neuron and gland. The neuron regulates the glandular activity.
the enlarged or rounded end of an axon.
the membrane where the neurotransmitters are released.
the membrane which contains receptors for the neurotransmitters.
Sensory neurons (afferent)
carry information towards the CNS from receptors.
Motor neuron (efferent)
carry impulses away from the CNS to the effector.
an association neuron found within the CNS.
line the ventricles and central canal of the CNS (think cerebrospinal fluid).
helps maintain the blood-brain barrier.
produce myelin in the CNS.
phagocytic cells of the CNS.
insulating sheath around an axon or dendrite. Increases the speed of conduction!
Nodes of Ranvier
unmyelinated areas between the myelin sheaths.
areas of an axon or dendrite that are wrapped in myelin.
a group of cell bodies outside the CNS, part of the PNS.
neuroglial cells found in the PNS and help regulate the environment around a neuron.
neuroglial cells in the PNS which produce myelin.
is a progressive destruction of the myelin sheaths of the nervous system. Causes: heavy metal poisoning, multiple sclerosis (MS), diphtheria
Also called local potentials. The transmembrane potential decreases in intensity as it move away from the source.Will open gated channels.
Action potential (AP)
Are propagated or conducted changes in the transmembrane potential.AP's trigger the opening of voltage gated Na+ channels.
involves the release of neurotransmitters and inactivator chemicals.
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
contains high concentrations of K+ and negatively charged particles. Overall negatively charged (-70mV).
Extracellular fluid (ECF)
contains high concentrations of Na+ and Cl-. Overall positively charged.
Resting Membrane Potential
is approximately -70 mV.
Chemically gated channels
channels which open or close when they bind to specific chemicals. i.e. neurotransmitters
are propagated changes in the transmembrane potential. 1st step is the opening of voltage gated Na channels.
channels which open or close in response to changes in the transmembrane potential.
Mechanically gated channels
channels which open or close in response to physical distortion of the membrane surface. Ex: sensory receptors
the skipping or jumping of an action potential down a myelinated axon or dendrite. Increases speed of conduction!
Speed of unmyelinated conduction
about 2 mph
Speed of myelinated conduction
greater than 260 mph
most common synapse, involves neurotransmitters.
the most common neurotransmitter released in the CNS & PNS.
a synapse which involves the release of Ach.
Summary of synapse events
An action potential arrives at the synaptic knob or bulb (axon terminal).Arrival of the action potential stimulates Ca2+ to enter the synaptic knob triggering the release of the neurotransmitter.The Neurotransmitter binds to receptors and depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane by opening Na+ gated channels (graded potential).Neurotransmitter is broken down by inactivator.
a neurotransmitter released in the brain & ANS. Also, known as noradrenaline.
a neurotransmitter released in the brain with excitatory effects. Cocaine blocks or inhibits dopamine removal.
CNS neurotransmitter, effects mood. Antidepressants (SSRI) help increase levels of this in the brain.
CNS neurotransmitter has an inhibitory effect or calming effect.
chemicals that alter the rate of neurotransmitter released or change the postsynaptic membrane response to the neurotransmitter. Opioids are used for pain relief.
a compound in tobacco that binds to Ach receptor sites & stimulates the postsynaptic membrane.
a fatal disease caused by a virus that reaches the CNS via retrograde flow along axons.
neuropeptides produced in the brain & spinal cord that relieve pain and effect mood.
a compound that disrupts normal nervous system function by interfering with the generation or propagation of action potentials.
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