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91 terms

Medical Terminology Chp. 7

Medical Terminology Chp. 7 Respiratory System
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bronch/o bronchi/o
bronchial tube, bronchus
cyan/o
combining form for blue
laryng/o
Of or pertaining to the larynx, the lower throat cavity where the voice box is
ox/i ox/o ox/y
combining forms for oxygen
pharyng/o
pharynx, throat
phon/o
voice or sound
pleur/o
pleura (membrane surrounding lungs and adjacent to chest wall)
-pnea
breath, breathing
pneum/o, pneumon/o, pneu-
lung, pertaining to the lungs, air
pulm/o pulmon/o
lungs (pneum/o sometimes means air or gas)
somn/o
combining form for sleep
spir/o
breathe, breathing
tachy-
fast, rapid
thorac/o -thorax
chest or thorax, thoracic part of spine
trache/o
trachea; windpipe
anoxia
deprivation of (state of being without) oxygen
antrhacosis
black lesions made of pulmonary macrophages with ingested coal particles. seen in coal workers, smokers and dwellers of urban polluted areas.
antitussive
any medicine used to suppress or relieve coughing
aphonia
a disorder of the vocal organs that results in the loss of voice
apnea
temporary cessation of breathing
asbestosis
lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles
asphyxia
a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis
asphyxiation
the condition of being derprived of oxygen (as by having breathing stopped)
aspiration pneumonia
inflammation of the lungs caused by inhaling or choking on vomitus
asthma
a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing
atelectasis
Collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli
bradypnea
abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less than 10 breaths per minute
bronchodilator
a drug that relaxes and dilates the bronchial passageways and improves the passages of air into the lungs
bronchorrhea
an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
bronchoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope, to examine the airways
bronchospasm
a spasm of the bronchi that makes exhalation difficult and noisy
cheyne-stokes respiration
pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
croup
an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough
cystic fibrosis
a genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus
diphtheria
an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract
dysphonia
difficulty producing speech sounds, usually due to hoarseness
dyspnea
difficult or labored respiration
emphysema
disease in which the tissues of the lungs lose elasticity, making breathing very difficult
empyema
a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)
endotracheal intubation
the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway
epistaxis
bleeding from the nose
hemoptysis
coughing up blood
hemothorax
accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)
hypercapnia
the presence of an abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood
hyperpnea
energetic (deep and rapid) respiration that occurs normally after exercise or abnormally with fever or various disorders
hypopnea
abnormally slow or shallow respirations
hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia
a very strong drive resulting from a deficiency of available oxygen in the blood and bodily tissues (short of anoxia)
laryngectomy
surgical removal of part or all of the larynx (usually to treat cancer of the larynx)
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx
laryngoplegia
paralysis of the vocal cords and larynx
laryngoscopy
visual examination of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury, or other abnormalities
mediastinum
the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
nebulizer
pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouthpiece
otolaryngologist
a physician with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck; also known as an ENT
pertussis
whooping cough; highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis
pharyngitis
Inflammation of the pharynx; also known as a sore throat.
pharyngoplasty
surgical repair of the pharynx
pleurectomy
surgical removal of part of the pleura
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath
pleurodynia
pain in the pleura or in the side that occurs in relation to breathing movements
pneumoconiosis
abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis
pneumonectomy
surgical removal of a lung (usually to treat lung cancer)
pneumothorax
air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
polysomnography
monitoring and recording of normal and abnormal activity during sleep to diagnose sleep disorders
pulmonologist
A physician who specializes in the diseases and disorders of the lungs and respiratory system
pulse oximeter
a device that measures the oxygen saturation of arterial blood by reference to light wave lengths
pyothorax
Pus in the chest cavity
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses
tachypnea
an abnormally rapid rate of respiration, usually >20 breaths per minute
thoracentesis
surgical puncture of the thoracic cavity, usually using a needle, to remove fluids
thoracostomy
the surgical creation of an opening into the chest cavity to establish drainage of empyema
tracheostomy
surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck
tracheotomy
an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage
tuberculosis
An infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis which affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body.
upper respiratory tract consists of
the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea
lower respiratory tract consists of
the bronchial tree and lungs. These structures are located within, and protected by, the thoracic cavity which is also known as the rib cage
nasal cavity
interior portion of the nose
nasal septum
is a wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two equal sections. A septum is a wall that separates two chambers
Cilia
thin hairs located just inside the nostrils, filter incoming air to remove debris
Mucous membranes
are the specialized tissues that line the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems
Mucus
which is secreted by the mucous membranes, protects and lubricates these tissues. In the
nose mucus helps to moisten, warm, and filter the air as it enters. Notice the different spellings; however, they have the same pronunciation. Mucous is the name of
the tissue; mucus is the secretion that flows from the tissue.
olfactory receptors
are nerve endings that act as the receptors for the sense of smell. They are also important to the sense of taste. These receptors are located in the mucous membrane in the
upper part of the nasal cavity
tonsils
form a protective circle of lymphatic tissue
around the entrance to the respiratory system
paranasal sinuses
air-filled cavities lined with mucous membrane, are located in the bones of the skull. These sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity via short ducts (para- means near, nas means nose, and -al means pertaining to).
pharynx
which is commonly known as the throat, receives the air after it passes through the nose. The pharynx is made up of three divisions
frontal sinuses
located in the frontal bone just above the eyebrows. An infection here can cause severe
pain in this area.
sphenoid sinuses
which are located in the sphenoid bone, are close to the optic nerves and an
infection here can damage vision
maxillary sinuses
which are the largest of the paranasal sinuses, are located in the maxillary bones. An infection in these sinuses can cause pain in the
posterior maxillary teeth
ethmoid sinuses
which are located in the ethmoid bones, are irregularly shaped air cells that are separated
from the orbital (eye) cavity by only a thin layer of bone
epiglottis
which
is a lid-like structure located at the base of the tongue,
swings downward and closes off the laryngopharynx so
that food does not enter the trachea and the lungs.