Ribosomes may be found scattered in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and are involved in protein synthesis
Which of the following organelles has the function of STORAGE, ALTERATION, and PACKAGING of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes?
Which of the following organelles is NOT surrounded by a membrane?
What is the function of the nucleus?
It produces rRNA and assembles ribosome subunits
The smallest living unit within the human body is?
Which of the following terms is NOT used to define the structure that separates the contents of a human cell from its surrounding medium?
The plasma membrane is composed of?
a bilayer of phospholipids
Which of the following is NOT a function of membrane proteins?
storage of cellular nutrients
The TAILS of a phospholipid molecule are?
Membrane proteins perform which of the following functions?
All of the answers are correct
Microfilaments do what?
anchor the cytoskeleton to integral proteins of the cell membrane
Tublin is a
Protein that assembles into filamentous tubes (Microtubules)
Compared to the extracellular fluid, cytosol contains?
a HIGHER concentration of potassium ions.
Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the?
Synthesis of lipids and glycogen takes place at the?
SMOOTH Endoplasmic Reticulum
Which of the following consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Organelles that break down fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide are?
When activated, lysosomes function in?
Digestion of foreign material
Which form of endoplasmic reticulum modifies and packages newly synthesized protein?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Match the organelles (1-4) with the correct description (5-8) 1. Mitochondrion 2. centriole 3. Endoplasmic Reticulum 4. cytosol 5. Intracellular transport 6. liquid in cell 7. Manufactures cell energy 8. Separates chromosomes during mitosis
1&7, 2&8, 3&5, 4&6
Tublin is to microtubules as actin is to?
All of the answers are correct
Which organelle is most prominent in cells that make large amounts of protein?
If an animal cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to?
Form the Mitotic Spindle
Each of the following is a function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, except?
Modification of protein
The following is a list of the steps involved in the process of secretion by the Golgi apparatus. Put them in the order that they occur. 1. Material moves from cistern to cisterna by means of transfer vesicles. 2. Exocytosis. 3. Products from RER are packaged into transport vesicles. 4. Secretory vesicles are formed at the maturing face. 5. Vesicles arrive at the forming face. 6. Enzymes modify arriving proteins and glycoproteins.
3, 5, 6, 1, 4, 2
Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria while others have relatively few or none. This suggests that?
cells with large numbers of mitochondria have a high energy demand.
Receptor Molecules on the surface of cells bind specific molecules called, in general, _______?
The organelles and the watery component of the cell together is called?
The water component of the cytoplasm is called?
Components of the cytoskeleton may include all of the following, except?
Many protein in the cytosol are _________ that accelerates metabolic reactions.
Most of a cell's DNA is located in its?
The control center for cellular operations is the?
The functional units of DNA that contain the instructions for making one or more proteins are?
The nucleus is surrounded by the ______________?
In cells that are not dividing, chromosomes uncoil to form a tangle of fine fibers known as____________?
________ refers to identifying an individual on the basis of repetitive nucleotide sequences in his or her DNA.
The process of protein formation directed by mRNA is called?
The process of forming mRNA is called?
Thymine is replaced by which nitrogen base in RNA?
The molecule that brings the proper amino acid into place at the ribosome for the elongation of a new protein is called?
Put the following steps of protein synthesis in correct order of occurrence. 1. mRNA is produced in nucleus 2. ribosome moves along mRNA 3. DNA uncoils for transcription 4. Polypeptide is produced 5. tRNA brings amino acids to ribosome 6. mRNA moves to the ribosome.
3, 1, 6, 2, 5, 4
The duplication of DNA is called _______, The copying of DNA to mRNA is called _______, And the reading of the mRNA by the cell to make a protein is called __________.
Replication, Transcription, Translation
A gene is a set of specific instructions that?
Indicates the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule.
Transfer of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytosol occurs through ________.
The movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of?
Water molecules and small ions enter a cell through?
Channels formed by integral proteins
Hemolysis may occur when a blood cell is placed into?
The skin swells and puckers during a long bath. This suggests that bath water is a(n) ______ fluid.
Red blood cell shrinkage is to ______ as cell bursting is to _____.
The process by which molecules such as glucose are moved into cells along their concentration gradient with the help of membrane-bound carrier protein is called?
Facilitated diffusion differs from ordinary diffusion in that?
The rate of molecular movement is limited by the number of available carrier molecules
All of the following membrane transport mechanisms are passive processes, except?
A process that requires cellular energy to move a substance against its concentration gradient is called?
The intake of small membrane vesicles from the extracellular fluid is called?
Two types of vesicular transport include?
Endocytosis ad exocytosis
a method of transporting substances into the cell
A defense cell engulfing a bacterium illustrates
In order to maintain cellular homeostasis, an exchange pump ejects ______ ions from the cell and imports _____ ions.
The principal cations in our body fluid are _______ and ________.
Whenever positive and negative ions have been separated, a(n) ______ will be produced.
When is DNA replicated?
The stage in a cells life in which the cell performs its normal functions and prepares for division is called?
a cell duplicated its chromosomes during the _______ phase.
During Mitosis, chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during
Mitosis is to somatic cells as meiosis is to
During this phase of cell division, the chromosomes uncoil, the nuclear membrane forms, and cytokinesis occurs.
During Mitosis, two daughter cells form each of which has
the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
regulates exchange with environment: -Ions and nutrients enter -waste and cellular products released Monitors the environment: -Extracellular fluid composition -Chemical signals Structural support -Anchors calls and tissues
The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with?
Proteins, Lipids, and Carbohydrates
Phospholipid Bilayer contains
Hydrophilic heads- toward watery environment, both sides
Hydrophobic fatty-acid tails- Inside membrane
-Barrier to ions and water soluble compounds
Cannot be removed without causing harm to the membrane. - go thru
- Bound to the inter or outer surface of the membrane
- Bind the cell membrane to other structures cytoskeleton inside the cell Other cells outside the cell
Recognition proteins (identifiers)
-label cells normal or abnormal -many are glycoproteins
Catalyze reactions in intracellular or extracellular fluid
-Receptive to extracellular molecules called ligands (ions, hormones) -An example is the binding of insulin to cells and the subsequent absorption of glucose into the cell - Receptor proteins are VERY specific