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102 terms

A&P Chapter 3 test

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Which of the following is true?
Ribosomes may be found scattered in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and are involved in protein synthesis
Which of the following organelles has the function of STORAGE, ALTERATION, and PACKAGING of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes?
Golgi Apparatus
Which of the following organelles is NOT surrounded by a membrane?
Ribosome
What is the function of the nucleus?
It produces rRNA and assembles ribosome subunits
The smallest living unit within the human body is?
The Cell
Which of the following terms is NOT used to define the structure that separates the contents of a human cell from its surrounding medium?
Cell Wall
The plasma membrane is composed of?
a bilayer of phospholipids
Which of the following is NOT a function of membrane proteins?
storage of cellular nutrients
The TAILS of a phospholipid molecule are?
hydrophobic
Membrane proteins perform which of the following functions?
All of the answers are correct
Microfilaments do what?
anchor the cytoskeleton to integral proteins of the cell membrane
Tublin is a
Protein that assembles into filamentous tubes (Microtubules)
Compared to the extracellular fluid, cytosol contains?
a HIGHER concentration of potassium ions.
Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the?
mitochondria
Synthesis of lipids and glycogen takes place at the?
SMOOTH Endoplasmic Reticulum
Which of the following consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Organelles that break down fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide are?
Peroxisomes
When activated, lysosomes function in?
Digestion of foreign material
Which form of endoplasmic reticulum modifies and packages newly synthesized protein?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Match the organelles (1-4) with the correct description (5-8)
1. Mitochondrion
2. centriole
3. Endoplasmic Reticulum
4. cytosol
5. Intracellular transport
6. liquid in cell
7. Manufactures cell energy
8. Separates chromosomes during mitosis
1&7, 2&8, 3&5, 4&6
Tublin is to microtubules as actin is to?
Microfilaments
Peroxisomes?
All of the answers are correct
Which organelle is most prominent in cells that make large amounts of protein?
Nucleolus
If an animal cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to?
Form the Mitotic Spindle
Each of the following is a function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, except?
Modification of protein
The following is a list of the steps involved in the process of secretion by the Golgi apparatus. Put them in the order that they occur.
1. Material moves from cistern to cisterna by means of transfer vesicles.
2. Exocytosis.
3. Products from RER are packaged into transport vesicles.
4. Secretory vesicles are formed at the maturing face.
5. Vesicles arrive at the forming face.
6. Enzymes modify arriving proteins and glycoproteins.
3, 5, 6, 1, 4, 2
Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria while others have relatively few or none. This suggests that?
cells with large numbers of mitochondria have a high energy demand.
Receptor Molecules on the surface of cells bind specific molecules called, in general, _______?
Ligands
The organelles and the watery component of the cell together is called?
cytoplasm
The water component of the cytoplasm is called?
Cytosol
Components of the cytoskeleton may include all of the following, except?
Microsomes.
Many protein in the cytosol are _________ that accelerates metabolic reactions.
enzymes
Most of a cell's DNA is located in its?
Nucleus
The control center for cellular operations is the?
Nucleus
The functional units of DNA that contain the instructions for making one or more proteins are?
genes
The nucleus is surrounded by the ______________?
Nuclear Envelope
In cells that are not dividing, chromosomes uncoil to form a tangle of fine fibers known as____________?
Chromatin
________ refers to identifying an individual on the basis of repetitive nucleotide sequences in his or her DNA.
DNA fingerprinting
The process of protein formation directed by mRNA is called?
Translation
The process of forming mRNA is called?
Transcription
Thymine is replaced by which nitrogen base in RNA?
Uracil
The molecule that brings the proper amino acid into place at the ribosome for the elongation of a new protein is called?
tRNA
Put the following steps of protein synthesis in correct order of occurrence.
1. mRNA is produced in nucleus
2. ribosome moves along mRNA
3. DNA uncoils for transcription
4. Polypeptide is produced
5. tRNA brings amino acids to ribosome
6. mRNA moves to the ribosome.
3, 1, 6, 2, 5, 4
The duplication of DNA is called _______, The copying of DNA to mRNA is called _______, And the reading of the mRNA by the cell to make a protein is called __________.
Replication, Transcription, Translation
A gene is a set of specific instructions that?
Indicates the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule.
Transfer of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytosol occurs through ________.
Nuclear Pores
The movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of?
diffusion
Water molecules and small ions enter a cell through?
Channels formed by integral proteins
Hemolysis may occur when a blood cell is placed into?
Hypotonic Solution
The skin swells and puckers during a long bath. This suggests that bath water is a(n) ______ fluid.
Hypotonic
Red blood cell shrinkage is to ______ as cell bursting is to _____.
Crenation, Hemolysis
The process by which molecules such as glucose are moved into cells along their concentration gradient with the help of membrane-bound carrier protein is called?
Facilitated diffusion
Facilitated diffusion differs from ordinary diffusion in that?
The rate of molecular movement is limited by the number of available carrier molecules
All of the following membrane transport mechanisms are passive processes, except?
Vesicular transport
A process that requires cellular energy to move a substance against its concentration gradient is called?
Active Transport
The intake of small membrane vesicles from the extracellular fluid is called?
Endocytosis
Two types of vesicular transport include?
Endocytosis ad exocytosis
Endocytosis is
a method of transporting substances into the cell
A defense cell engulfing a bacterium illustrates
Phagocytosis
In order to maintain cellular homeostasis, an exchange pump ejects ______ ions from the cell and imports _____ ions.
Sodium, Potassium
The principal cations in our body fluid are _______ and ________.
Sodium, Potassium
Whenever positive and negative ions have been separated, a(n) ______ will be produced.
Potential Difference
When is DNA replicated?
Interphase
The stage in a cells life in which the cell performs its normal functions and prepares for division is called?
interphase
a cell duplicated its chromosomes during the _______ phase.
S
During Mitosis, chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during
Anaphase
Mitosis is to somatic cells as meiosis is to
Reproductive cells.
During this phase of cell division, the chromosomes uncoil, the nuclear membrane forms, and cytokinesis occurs.
Telophase
During Mitosis, two daughter cells form each of which has
the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
The correct order of phases in cell division is?
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
If a cell has 18 chromosomes and undergoes mitosis how many chromosomes would each daughter cell have?
18
Nuclear division of somatic cells is known as?
mitosis
The genetically programmed death of cells is called
apoptosis
An alternate term for tumor is?
Neoplasm
________ cells are all of the cells of the body except the reproductive cells (sperm and oocytes)
Somatic
The endoplasmic reticulum is an example of a(n) ______ organelle
Membranous
the extracellular fluid in most tissues is called the ______ fluid.
Interstitial
_________ are responsible for identifying and digesting damaged or denatured proteins.
Proteasomes
The ______ typically consists of five or six flattened membranous discs called cisternae.
Golgi Apparatus
Histones are found in?
Nucleosomes
Cancer cells
May exhibit metastasis
A(n) _______ is a mutant of a regulatory gene that causes cancer.
Oncogene
The process by which cells become specialized is called_______ ?
differentiation
What are the building blocks of all plants and animals?
Cells
what do cells do?
-Respond to the environment
-Maintain homeostasis at the cellular level
-Modify structure and function over time
What is the study of the structure and function of cells?
Cytology
Sex cells (germ cells)
-Reproductive cells
-male sperm
-female oocytes (eggs)
Somatic cells
all body cells with the exception of sex cells.
The cell has on outer boundary called?
The cell membrane or plasma membrane
Functions of the cell membrane
regulates exchange with environment:
-Ions and nutrients enter
-waste and cellular products released
Monitors the environment:
-Extracellular fluid composition
-Chemical signals
Structural support
-Anchors calls and tissues
The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with?
Proteins, Lipids, and Carbohydrates
Phospholipid Bilayer contains
Hydrophilic heads- toward watery environment, both sides

Hydrophobic fatty-acid tails- Inside membrane

-Barrier to ions and water soluble compounds
Integral Proteins
Cannot be removed without causing harm to the membrane.
- go thru
Peripheral Proteins
- Bound to the inter or outer surface of the membrane
Anchoring Proteins
- Bind the cell membrane to other structures
cytoskeleton inside the cell
Other cells outside the cell
Recognition proteins (identifiers)
-label cells normal or abnormal
-many are glycoproteins
Enzymes
Catalyze reactions in intracellular or extracellular fluid
Receptor Proteins
-Receptive to extracellular molecules called ligands (ions, hormones)
-An example is the binding of insulin to cells and the subsequent absorption of glucose into the cell
- Receptor proteins are VERY specific
Carrier Proteins
Transport specific solutes through membrane
Channels
Regulate waterflow and solutes through membrane
Membrane Carbohydrates include
Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids:
-extend outside cell membrane
-Form sticky "sugar coat" (Glycocalyx)
Functions of Glycocalyx
Lubrication and protection
Anchoring and Location
Specificity in binding (receptors)
Recognition (immune response)
Functions in bloodtype