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Anthropology Exam 1
Terms in this set (52)
In understanding the problems with attempts at human racial classification, why is it important to understand the difference between genotype and phenotype?
Attempts at human racial classification have typically used phenotypic traits like skin color as markers of common ancestry, but many such traits do not reflect shared genetic material. Instead, they are often the result of different populations biologically adapting to similar environmental stressors in similar ways.
An examination of racial taxonomies from around the world would indicate that
the classification of racial types is an arbitrary and culturally specific process
Which of the following statements about human skin color is NOT true?
The amount of melanin in the skin affects the body's ability to process lactose.
Bregmann's rule states that average body size tends to
increase in cold climates and decrease in hot ones.
According to Allen's rule, the relative size of protruding body parts, including limbs, ears, tails, fingers, and toes,
increases with temperature
What is a phenotypic adaption, and what makes it possible?
It happens when adaptive changes occur during an individual's lifetime. It is made possible by human biological plasticity, our ability to change in response to the environments we encounter as we grow
The intelligent design (ID) movement asserts that life forms are too complex to have been formed by natural processes and must therefore have been created by a higher intelligence. Attempts have been made to teach ID as an alternative theory to Darwinian evolution in biology classes in several states in the United States. However,
as a Pennsylvania district judge ruled in a 2005 case, ID violates the ground rules of science by invoking supernatural causation and making assertions that cannot be tested or falsified, and thus does not belong in a school's science curriculum
Darwin and Wallace simultaneously proposed which of the following theoretical models?
For natural selection to work on particular population
there must be genetic and phenotypic variety within that population
Adaptive traits are
favored by natural selection
Which of the following statements about natural selection is NOT true?
natural selection operates directly on genetic variety
Why are genetics and evolution so important to anthropology?
they help anthropologists document and explain human biological diversity
Mutations are the most important source of variety on which natural selection depends and operates.There are two forms of mutations,
called base substitution mutation and chromosomal rearrangement
What is anthropology?
the exploration of human diversity in time and space
As humans organize their lives and adapt to different environments, our abilities to learn, think symbolically, use language, and employ tools (technology) and other products
rest on certain features of human biology that make culture, which is not itself biological, possible
Which of the following is NOT true about culture?
Culture is passed on genetically to future generations
The presence of more efficient respiratory systems to extract oxygen from the air among human populations living at high elevations is an example of which form of adaption?
long-term physiological adaptation
Ethnography is the
fieldwork component of cultural anthropology
Based on his observations that contact between neighboring tribes had existed since humanity's beginnings and covered enormous areas, Franz Boas argued
against treating cultures as isolated phenomena
Anthropology may improve psychological studies of human behavior by contributing
a cross-cultural perspective on models of human psychology
What term is synonymous with applied anthropologists?
is acquired by humans as members of society through the process of enculturation
Which of the following statements about enculturation is NOT true?
It is the exchange of cultural features that results when two or more groups come into consistent firsthand contact
Anthropologists agree that cultural learning is uniquely elaborated among humans and that all humans have culture. They also accept a doctrine designated in the 19th century as the "psychic unity of man." What does this doctrine mean?
Although individuals differ in their emotional and intellectual capacities, all human populations have equivalent capacities for culture
What do anthropologists mean when they say culture is shared?
Culture is an attribute of individuals as members of groups
Culture can be adaptive or maladaptive. It is maladaptive when
cultural traits, patterns, and inventions threaten the group's continued survival and reproduction and thus its very existence
The human capacity for culture has an evolutionary basis that extends back at least 2.5 million years. This date corresponds to
early toolmakers whose products survive in the archaeological record
The incest taboo is a cultural universal, but
the definition of what constitutes incest varies widely across cultures
The tendency to view one's own culture as superior and to use one's own standards and values in judging others is called
In anthropology, cultural relativism is not a moral position but a methodological one. It states that
in order to understand another culture fully, we must try to understand how the people in that culture see things.
All of the following are proper roles for applied anthropologists EXCEPT
placing the cultural values of the local people above everybody else's cultural values
What is the commonly stated goal for most development projects?
Which of the following is a reason that the Madagascar project to increase rice production was successful?
Malagasy leaders were of the peasantry and were therefore prepared to follow the descent-group ethic of pooling resources for the good of the group as a whole
Which of the following is true about medical anthropology?
This growing field considers the biocultural context and implications of disease and illness
What is a disease?
A scientifically identified health threat
What is an illness?
a condition of poor health perceived by an individual
Which of the following is NOT one of the fields of study mentioned in the textbook as part of the multidisciplinary approaches used in physical anthropology and archaeology?
Advances in technology enable archaeologists to gather evidence that is not visible to the naked eye. One example of such microscopic evidence is the study of
phytoliths, microscopic crystals found in many plants that are inorganic and do not decay, which means that they can reveal which plants were present at a given site even when no other plant remains survive.
Data collected using systematic surveys do NOT typically address which of the following questions?
what is the relative chronology of the layers exposed during excavation?
The principle of superposition states that in an undisturbed sequence of strata,
the oldest layer is on the bottom
Radiometric dating techniques available to anthropologists
establish a probable date for fossils by calculating radioactive decay in the specimen found or the rocks surrounding it.
Which of the following statements about techniques used in dating fossil remains is NOT true?
Carbon-14 dating is most accurate on specimens over 200,000 years old
What are both carbon-14 and potassium-argon dating techniques based on?
Upon what assumption is molecular dating based?
The rate of genetic mutation in humans is constant
Dendrochronology is an absolute dating method based on the comparison of tree-ring growth
patterns and is also useful
because it provides information about climatic patterns in specific regions.
The term gene pool refers to all the
alleles, genes, chromosomes, and genotypes within a breeding population
Any factor that contributes to the change in allele frequency in a breeding population from generation to generation is considered a mechanism of genetic evolution. Those mechanisms are
natural selection, mutation, random genetic drift, and gene flow
Which of the following statements about
individuals with the HbS allele in the homozygous form is true?
they usually develop fatal cases of sickle-cell anemia
usually develop fatal cases of sickle-cell anemia
Which of the following statements about the concept of race as applied to humans is true?
is a discredited concept in biology
This chapter's "Appreciating Diversity" segment describes recent DNA analysis of Australian Aborigines, which revealed that their ancestors branched off from ancestral Europeans and Asians 70,000 to 50,000 years ago. This research indicates
Australian Aborigines are direct descendants of the first modern humans to leave Africa
What is the term for a gradual shift in gene frequencies between neighboring populations?
Which of the following statements about attempts to assign humans to discrete racial categories purportedly based on common ancestry is true?
They are culturally arbitrary, eventhough most people assume they are based in biology
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